Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Dispersion, Monitoring, Mitigation and Lessons Learned, Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Dispersion, Monitoring, Mitigation and Lessons Learned [Hardback]

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  • Formāts: Hardback, 372 pages, height x width x depth: 253x178x21 mm, weight: 920 g, Worked examples or Exercises
  • Sērija : Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series
  • Izdošanas datums: 15-Aug-2019
  • Izdevniecība: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-10: 1108475809
  • ISBN-13: 9781108475808
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  • Formāts: Hardback, 372 pages, height x width x depth: 253x178x21 mm, weight: 920 g, Worked examples or Exercises
  • Sērija : Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series
  • Izdošanas datums: 15-Aug-2019
  • Izdevniecība: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-10: 1108475809
  • ISBN-13: 9781108475808
The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations, and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.

Papildus informācija

Unique summary of the environmental impact of the 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, for researchers, nuclear engineers and policymakers.
Contributors xiv
Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxii
Part I Transport of Radioactive Materials in the Environment
1(212)
1 Introduction: Basic Concepts Regarding the Fukushima Accident and Radiation and Radioactivity
5(45)
1.1 Overview of the Fukushima Accident
5(5)
Teruyuki Nakajima
Toshimasa Ohara
Mitsuo Uematsu
Yuichi Onda
1.2 Radioactive Elements, Radioactive Nuclides and Radioactive Substances
10(2)
Mitsuru Ebihara
Atsushi Shinohara
1.3 Measurement of Radiation
12(3)
Mitsuru Ebihara
Atsushi Shinohara
1.4 Example of y-Ray Spectrometry to Determine Accurate Radioactivity Values
15(5)
Mitsuru Ebihara
Atsushi Shinohara
Yasunori Hamajima
1.5 Radioactivity and Radiation Dose
20(2)
Mitsuru Ebihara
Atsushi Shinohara
1.6 Effects of Radioactive Substances on Humans
22(3)
Yasuhito Igarashi
Tatsuo Aono
1.7 Environmental Transfer of Radioactive Substances
25(3)
Yasuhito Igarashi
1.8 Temporal Trends of Radioactive Substances after and before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Quantitative Comparison
28(5)
Yasuhito Igarashi
Michio Aoyama
Masayuki Takigawa
1.9 Characteristics of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Atmosphere after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident
33(5)
Yasuhito Igarashi
1.10 Time-Dependent Change of Radiation Levels in the 80km Zone for Five Years after the Fukushima Accident
38(12)
Kimiaki Saito
References
44(6)
2 Estimation of Environmental Releases of Radioactive Materials
50(12)
2.1 Release of Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere
50(1)
Masamichi Chino
Haruyasu Nagai
2.2 Reverse Estimation Method for the Source Term
51(1)
Masamichi Chino
Haruyasu Nagai
2.3 Release Rates of Radionuclides from the FDNPS
52(1)
Masamichi Chino
Haruyasu Nagai
2.4 Evaluation of the Release Rates
53(2)
Masamichi Chino
Haruyasu Nagai
2.5 Estimation of the Direct Release into the Ocean
55(4)
Daisuke Tsumune
Yukio Masumoto
References
59(3)
3 Diffusion in the Atmosphere
62(50)
3.1 The Atmospheric Transport Process for Radioactive Substances and the Effects of Meteorological Conditions
62(1)
Hisashi Nakamura
Yu Morino
Masayuki Takigawa
3.2 Atmospheric Transportation and Deposition of the Radioactive Materials
63(10)
Yu Morino
Masayuki Takigawa
Hisashi Nakamura
3.3 Atmospheric Dispersion of Releases
73(7)
Anne Mathieu
Olivier Saunier
Denis Quelo
Damien Didier
3.4 What Would Have Happened if This Accident Had Occurred in a Different Season or at a Different Power Plant?
80(2)
Hisashi Nakamura
Yu Morino
Masayuki Takigawa
3.5 Factors Contributing to Uncertainty in Atmospheric Diffusion Models
82(2)
Masayuki Takigawa
Yu Morino
Hisashi Nakamura
3.6 Behaviour of Radioactive Substances Based on Atmospheric Monitoring at Fukushima University
84(7)
Akira Watanabe
3.7 Atmospheric Radionuclides Concentrations Just After the Fukushima Accident
91(7)
Haruo Tsuruta
Yasuji Oura
Mitsuru Ebihara
Daisuke Goto
3.8 Monitoring the Radioactivity of Atmospheric Aerosols and the Influence of Resuspension from the Ground
98(5)
Kazuyuki Kita
Mizuo Kajino
3.9 Characteristics of Radioactive Materials in Aerosols
103(2)
Yoshio Takahashi
Naohiro Yoshida
3.10 Sizes and Distributions of Metallic Particles Caused by Burning or Explosion
105(1)
Isao Tanihata
Mamoru Fujiwara
References
106(6)
4 Global Transport of Radioactive Materials
112(16)
4.1 Global Observation of Radioactive Material
112(4)
Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka
Toshihiko Takemura
Michio Aoyama
4.2 Simulations of the Long-Range Transport of Radioactive Materials after the Accident
116(1)
Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka
Toshihiko Takemura
Michio Aoyama
4.3 Estimation of the Transport Pathway and Simulation of Radioactive Materials Using Global-Scale Models
117(3)
Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka
Toshihiko Takemura
Michio Aoyama
4.4 Inverse Estimation of Emission Fluxes Based on Global Observations and Numerical Simulations
120(3)
Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka
Toshihiko Takemura
Michio Aoyama
4.5 Future Issues in the Global Simulation of Radioactive Materials
123(2)
Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka
Toshihiko Takemura
Michio Aoyama
References
125(3)
5 Ocean Transport of Radioactive Materials
128(39)
5.1 Introduction
128(1)
Michio aoyama
Mitsuo Uematsu
Seiya Nagao
Takashi Ishimaru
Jota Kanda
Tatsuo Aono
Yukio Masumoto
Daisuke Tsumune
5.2 Measurement of Radioactive Materials Over the Marine Atmosphere
129(2)
Mitsuo Uematsu
5.3 Behaviour of Radiocaesium from Rivers to the Coastal Marine Environment
131(3)
Seiya Nagao
5.4 Transport of Radiocaesium in the North Pacific Ocean
134(4)
Michio Aoyama
5.5 Dispersion Simulation and Estimation of the Total Amount of 137Cs Directly Discharged into the Ocean
138(3)
Yukio Masumoto
Daisuke Tsumune
5.6 Investigation of Radioactive Contamination of Marine Biota: A Chronicle
141(3)
Takashi Ishimaru
5.7 Pollution in Coastal Environments: Seawater and Sediment
144(4)
Jota Kanda
5.8 Pollution of Marine Fish and Shellfish
148(6)
Takashi Ishimaru
Tatsuo Aono
5.9 Transfer Mechanisms of Radionuclides in the Marine Ecosystem
154(3)
Jota Kanda
Takashi Ishimaru
5.10 Radioactive Caesium from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Migratory Marine Animals
157(5)
Zofia Baumann
Daniel J. Madigan
Nicholas S. Fisher
References
162(5)
6 Diffusion and Deposition of Radioactive Materials in the Terrestrial Environment
167(46)
6.1 Overview of the Large-Scale Measurement of Radioactive Materials Deposited on Ground Surfaces
167(9)
Isao Tanihata
Mamoru Fujiwara
Yuichi Onda
6.2 Radionuclide Transfer from Forest Environments
176(6)
Yuichi Onda
6.3 Sediment and Radionuclide Transfer from the Land to the Ocean: International Research Perspectives
182(4)
Olivier Evrard
J. Patrick Laceby
6.4 Distribution and Migration of Radioiodine in Terrestrial Environment
186(5)
Tetsuya Matsunaka
Kimikazu Sasa
6.5 Understanding the Migration Behaviour of Radiocaesium at the Molecular Scale
191(6)
Yoshio Takahashi
Kazuya Tanaka
Aya Sakaguchi
6.6 Effects on Agricultural Products and Wild Plants
197(9)
Chisato Takenaka
References
206(7)
Part II Development and Future Issues for the Infrastructure of Disaster Prevention
213(44)
Preliminary remarks
215(4)
Tokushi Shibata
7 Monitoring System
219(11)
7.1 Introduction
219(1)
Hiromi Yamazawa
7.2 Radiation Monitoring Facilities
220(4)
Hiromi Yamazawa
7.3 Information Necessary for Off-Site Countermeasures
224(1)
Hiromi Yamazawa
7.4 Other Infrastructure
225(3)
Hiromi Yamazawa
7.5 Monitoring of Rivers
228(1)
Yuichi Onda
References
228(2)
8 Dispersion Modelling of Radioactive Materials
230(13)
8.1 Overview of SPEEDI
230(3)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
8.2 Role of SPEEDI in the Emergency Response Framework
233(2)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
8.3 Response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident
235(1)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
8.4 How Should We Have Utilised SPEEDI?
236(2)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
8.5 Lessons and Tasks for SPEEDI from the Accident
238(1)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
8.6 Recent Status of Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling
239(2)
Haruyasu Nagai
Hiromi Yamazawa
References
241(2)
9 Off-Site Decontamination
243(14)
9.1 Concept of Decontamination and Its Application
243(2)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.2 Decontamination Techniques Used at Contaminated Sites
245(1)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.3 Timeline of the Decontamination-Related Events Following the Disaster
246(3)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.4 Demonstration Tests and Demonstration Model Projects for Decontamination Technologies
249(2)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.5 Contamination Levels Required to Trigger Intensive Survey for the Necessity of Decontamination Work and of the Goals of Decontamination
251(2)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.6 Temporary and Interim Storage, Processing and the Final Disposal of Soil and Waste Generated by Decontamination
253(2)
Yuichi Moriguchi
9.7 Conclusion
255(1)
Yuichi Moriguchi
References
256(1)
Part III Lessons and Future Issues from the Fukushima Accident
257(77)
10 Urgent Actions by Scientists
261(23)
10.1 The Gathering and Distribution of Information Required for Applying Countermeasures at the Disaster Site
261(1)
Tokushi Shibata
10.2 The Need for Interdisciplinary Research
262(6)
Toshimasa Ohara
10.3 Explanation of Scientific Phenomena and Uncertainties: The Importance of Validation -Lessons from the IPCC
268(3)
Teruyuki Nakajima
10.4 Proposal for Group Voice: Going beyond the Limits of One Voice and Making Information Provided by Scientists Available to the Public in Emergency Situations
271(6)
Hiromiyo Koyama
10.5 The Autonomous Dissemination of Information from Scientists
277(7)
Masatoshi Imada
11 Emergency Actions and Messages Related to the Fukushima Accident
284(44)
11.1 Reports from Fukushima University
284(7)
Akira Watanabe
11.2 Efforts of the Science Council of Japan and Scientific Societies and Unions
291(3)
Teruyuki Nakajima
Tokushi Shibata
Tomoyuki Takahashi
11.3 Urgent Atmospheric Measurements Under Collaboration between Geoscientists and Radiological Chemists
294(3)
Haruo Tsurtjta
Teruyuki Nakajima
11.4 Urgent Survey for the Disaster at Sea
297(8)
Mitsuo Uematsu
Takeshi Kawano
Atsushi Tsuda
11.5 Participation of Nuclear Physicists in the Screening Survey
305(4)
Isao Tanihata
Mamoru Fujiwara
11.6 Large-Scale Investigation of Deposited Radioactive Materials
309(14)
Tokushi Shibata
Isao Tanihata
Mamoru Fujiwara
Takaharu Otsuka
Susumu Shimoura
11.7 Scientists' Contribution to the Study of Forests
323(2)
Yuichi Onda
11.8 Specific Characteristics of the Fukushima Accident
325(1)
Anne Mathieu
Denis Quelo
Olivier Saunier
Damien Didier
References
326(2)
12 Recommendations for the Fukushima Project from Foreign Scientists
328(6)
12.1 Emergency Response Improvements Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
328(3)
Anne Mathieu
Denis Quelo
Olivier Saunier
Damien Didier
12.2 Suggestions for Future Steps to be Taken by Japan
331(2)
Nicholas S. Fisher
12.3 Recommendations to Japanese Researchers
333(1)
Olivier Evrard
References 334(1)
Glossary 335(16)
Names of Locations 351(2)
Index 353
Teruyuki Nakajima is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Tokyo. He is currently serving as Chief Scientist of the Earth Observation Research Center (EROC) at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA); and as Secretary General of IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences). At the time of the Fukushima accident he was a member of the Science Council of Japan, Section President of Atmospheric and Hydrospheric sciences at the Japan Geoscience Union; and an executive member of the Japan Meteorological Society. As part of these roles, he helped investigate and organise the emergency response to the disaster. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, and in 2017 he was awarded the Japan Purple Ribbon medal. Toshimasa Ohara is Researcher Director of the Fukushima Branch at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). He leads the Environmental Emergency Research Program that contributes to environmental recovery and renovation in Fukushima. After the Fukushima accident his group worked on atmospheric simulations of radionuclides from the disaster, and published the first result of temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates on a regional scale. He is President of the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment and serves as a member of the Science Advisory Committee of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Mitsuo Uematsu is Emeritus Professor and former Director of the Centre for International Collaboration at the Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute at the University of Tokyo. His major research interests include the long-range transport of natural and anthropogenic substances over the ocean and the properties of marine aerosols, including their impact on the marine environment. He has received several awards from Japanese societies and international organizations. He has served as President of the Oceanographic Society of Japan, a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP SC), and Chair of the Japanese National Committee for Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. Yuichi Onda is the Chief Administrator of the Center for Research and Environmental Dynamics, and a Professor at the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, both at the University of Tsukuba. He specializes in hydrogeomorphology and geomorphic development. After the Fukushima accident, he started an interdisciplinary research project on gamma-emitting radionuclides released into the environment in order to study the behaviour of radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments. The results of the study are expected to contribute to the reconstruction of the contaminated environment.