Environmental Consulting Fundamentals: Investigation, Remediation, and Brownfields Redevelopment, Second Edition 2nd New edition [Hardback]

(GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc., Fairfield, New Jersey, USA)
  • Formāts: Hardback, 412 pages, height x width: 254x178 mm, weight: 395 g, 54 Tables, black and white; 182 Illustrations, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 24-Jun-2019
  • Izdevniecība: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138613207
  • ISBN-13: 9781138613201
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  • Formāts: Hardback, 412 pages, height x width: 254x178 mm, weight: 395 g, 54 Tables, black and white; 182 Illustrations, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 24-Jun-2019
  • Izdevniecība: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138613207
  • ISBN-13: 9781138613201
Citas grāmatas par šo tēmu:
Environmental Consulting Fundamentals: Investigation, Remediation, and Brownfields Redevelopment, Second Edition is a primer for those interested in a career in this dynamic, multidisciplinary field as well as a handy reference for practicing consultants. Combining theory and practice advice into a concise, readable format, the book is an accessible introduction to the types of projects you will encounter as an environmental consultant and lays the groundwork for what you’ll need to know in this challenging and rewarding profession.New in the Second EditionCovers the latest environmental issues, including emerging contaminants, and the latest technological advances in environmental investigation and remediationNew chapters dedicated to vapor intrusion investigation and mitigation and to Brownfields redevelopment and project financing.An expanded chapter describing the staffing, budgeting, and execution of environmental projects.Descriptions of the remediation processes under RCRA and SuperfundDescriptions on how each chapter’s subject matter applies to the job of the environmental consultant.Dozens of new figures, photographs, and tables designed to enhance the reader’s understanding of the subject matter.Problems and questions to be used for homework assignments or classroom discussions.

Recenzijas

"This book is a must read for anyone entering the environmental consultant profession, as well as a useful reference for the seasoned environmental consultant. It is comprehensive, covering the wide spectrum of problems that environmental consultants solve on a daily basis." --Jorge Berkowitz, Ph.D., LSRP Partner at Continuing Education Professional Services, LLC Rosemont, New Jersey, USA "This book presents information in a way that is easy to understand and apply. I wish this book was available when I was in graduate school!" --Kim Kramer Senior Vice President, AIG Morristown, New Jersey, USA "The second edition of Environmental Consulting Fundamentals takes a good concept and makes it better! Besides containing updated material, it adds features that enhance its value in both the classroom and the office. Students, beginning environmental scientists, and seasoned professionals alike will find something useful in this new edition. --Monica Tischler Professor, Benedictine University Lisle, Illinois, USA "...This second edition is a notable enhancement of the first edition. The overall production quality is high, the conceptual figures are intuitive and helpful, and there are many photographs from field sites that help the reader develop a practical appreciation for the topic discussed. The tables are generally easy to read and contain relevant information. ...Overall, this new edition provides an excellent introduction for someone considering an environmental consulting profession or as a reference for early career professional, and in this regard, it continues to be a truly unique resource." Craig E. Divine, The Groundwater Magazine, January 2020

Preface to Second Edition xxi
Preface to First Edition xxiii
Acknowledgments to Second Edition xxv
Author xxvii
Section I Environmental Consulting: A Perspective
1 What Is Environmental Consulting?
3(10)
1.1 The Environment and Environmental Hazards
3(2)
1.2 What Is Environmental Consulting?
5(1)
1.3 Types of Clients
5(1)
1.4 What Do Environmental Consultants Do?
6(3)
1.4.1 The Consultant as Consultant
6(2)
1.4.2 The Consultant as General Contractor
8(1)
1.4.3 The Consultant as Client
8(1)
1.4.4 The Consultant as Regulator
8(1)
1.4.5 The Consultant as Expert
9(1)
1.5 Credentials and Certifications of Environmental Consultants
9(1)
1.6 Career Pathways in Environmental Consulting
10(1)
Bibliography
11(2)
2 Environmental Projects: The Technical Side and the Business Side
13(10)
2.1 The Technical Side of Environmental Consulting
13(4)
2.1.1 Environmental Investigations and Remediations
13(3)
2.1.1.1 Data Collection
13(1)
2.1.1.2 Sampling Objectives
14(1)
2.1.1.3 Biased versus Unbiased Data
14(1)
2.1.1.4 Quality Assurance and Quality Control
15(1)
2.1.1.5 Units of Measurement
15(1)
2.1.2 Environmental Remediation
16(1)
2.1.3 Documenting the Environmental Investigation and Remediation
16(1)
2.2 The Business Side of Environmental Consulting
17(5)
2.2.1 Project Contract
17(1)
2.2.2 Project Scope of Services
17(1)
2.2.3 The Project Team
18(1)
2.2.4 The Project Schedule
18(1)
2.2.5 The Project Budget
19(4)
2.2.5.1 Labor Costs
19(1)
2.2.5.2 Pass-Through Costs and Other Direct Expenses
20(1)
2.2.5.3 Net Revenue
20(1)
2.2.5.4 Project Invoicing
20(2)
Problems and Exercises
22(1)
3 Framework of Environmental Regulations
23(20)
3.1 The Formation of United States Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration
23(2)
3.1.1 Pre-history of Environmental Regulations
23(1)
3.1.2 Establishment of the United States Environmental Protection Agency
24(1)
3.1.3 Establishment of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
25(1)
3.2 Legal Framework of Federal Environmental Regulations
25(2)
3.2.1 Code of Federal Regulations
25(1)
3.2.2 Legal Framework of State Environmental Regulations
26(1)
3.3 Major Federal Environmental Laws
27(11)
3.3.1 Clean Air Act
27(1)
3.3.2 Clean Water Act
28(1)
3.3.3 Endangered Species Act
28(1)
3.3.4 Safe Drinking Water Act
29(1)
3.3.5 Toxic Substances Control Act
29(1)
3.3.5.1 Polychlorinated Biphenyls under the Toxic Substances Control Act
29(1)
3.3.5.2 Titles II through VI of TSCA
29(1)
3.3.6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
30(4)
3.3.6.1 Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste
30(2)
3.3.6.2 "Cradle-to-Grave" Concept of Hazardous Waste Management
32(2)
3.3.6.3 Non-hazardous Waste Management
34(1)
3.3.7 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
34(4)
3.3.7.1 Origins of Superfund
34(1)
3.3.7.2 Liability under Superfund
35(1)
3.3.7.3 Petroleum Exclusion
36(1)
3.3.7.4 National Priorities List
36(1)
3.3.7.5 National Contingency Plan
37(1)
3.3.7.6 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
37(1)
3.3.7.7 Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act of 2002
38(1)
3.3.7.8 Energy Policy Act of 2005
38(1)
3.4 Environmental Regulations and Environmental Consultants
38(3)
3.4.1 Clean Air Act Compliance
39(1)
3.4.2 Clean Water Act Compliance
39(1)
3.4.3 Endangered Species Act Compliance
39(1)
3.4.4 Safe Drinking Water Act Compliance
39(1)
3.4.5 Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance
40(1)
3.4.6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Compliance
40(1)
3.4.7 Superfund and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Compliance
40(1)
3.4.8 Brownfields Act
40(1)
3.4.9 Environmental Compliance Audits
40(1)
Problems and Exercises
41(1)
Bibliography
42(1)
4 Environmental Chemistry
43(28)
4.1 Introduction
43(1)
4.2 Chemical Nomenclature
43(1)
4.3 Chemical Lists
43(1)
4.4 Chemical Classifications
44(1)
4.5 The Target Compound List/Target Analyte List
45(13)
4.5.1 Inorganic Analytes
45(1)
4.5.2 Organic Compounds
46(12)
4.5.2.1 Volatile Organic Compounds
46(6)
4.5.2.2 Semi-volatile Organic Compounds
52(4)
4.5.2.3 Pesticides
56(1)
4.5.2.4 Polychlorinated Biphenyls
57(1)
4.6 Contaminants in Drinking Water
58(7)
4.6.1 Organic Chemicals with Primary Drinking Water Standards
58(2)
4.6.2 Inorganic Chemicals with Primary Drinking Water Standards
60(2)
4.6.2.1 Disinfectants and Disinfectant Byproducts
60(2)
4.6.2.2 Nitrates and Nitrites
62(1)
4.6.3 Radionuclides
62(1)
4.6.4 Biological Agents
62(1)
4.6.5 Turbidity
62(1)
4.6.6 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations Contaminants
62(1)
4.6.7 Emerging Contaminants in Drinking Water
63(4)
4.6.7.1 1,4-Dioxane
64(1)
4.6.7.2 Perchlorate
64(1)
4.6.7.3 Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
64(1)
4.7 Chemistry of Surface Waters
65(2)
4.8 Petroleum and Petroleum-Related Compounds
67(2)
4.8.1 Chemical Composition of Petroleum
67(1)
4.8.2 Gasoline
67(1)
4.8.3 Non-volatile Fuels
68(1)
4.8.4 Engineered Oils
68(1)
4.9 Synthetic Organic Contaminants
69(1)
Problems and Exercises
69(1)
Bibliography
69(2)
5 Fate and Transport in the Subsurface
71(18)
5.1 Surface Transport of Chemicals
71(1)
5.2 Subsurface Formations
72(5)
5.2.1 Bedrock
72(1)
5.2.2 Soils
72(2)
5.2.3 Fill Materials
74(1)
5.2.4 Organic Matter
75(1)
5.2.5 Porosity and Permeability
76(1)
5.3 Chemical Fate and Transport in the Subsurface
77(10)
5.3.1 Physical State of Chemicals
77(1)
5.3.1.1 Vapor-Liquid Partition Coefficient
77(1)
5.3.1.2 Solubility
77(1)
5.3.2 The Hydrogeologic Cycle
78(1)
5.3.3 Vadose Zone
78(1)
5.3.4 Saturated Zone
79(5)
5.3.4.1 Hydraulic Gradient
80(1)
5.3.4.2 Groundwater Flow
81(1)
5.3.4.3 Aquifers
82(1)
5.3.4.4 Aquitards, Aquicludes, and Confining Layers
83(1)
5.3.4.5 Perched Aquifers
84(1)
5.3.5 Chemical Transport in the Saturated Zone
84(6)
5.3.5.1 Aqueous Phase Liquids
84(1)
5.3.5.2 Non-aqueous Phase Liquids
85(1)
5.3.5.3 Advection
85(1)
5.3.5.4 Diffusion
85(1)
5.3.5.5 Dispersion
86(1)
5.3.5.6 Attenuation and Retardation
87(1)
Problems and Exercises
87(1)
Bibliography
88(1)
6 Environmental Due Diligence
89(38)
6.1 History of the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment
89(1)
6.2 The ASTM Phase I Standard-Recognized Environmental Conditions, Controlled Recognized Environmental Conditions, and Historical Recognized Environmental Conditions
90(3)
6.2.1 Exclusions from the Standard
93(1)
6.3 Who Can Perform the Phase I ESA
93(1)
6.4 Components of the ASTM E1527 Standard
94(21)
6.4.1 Site Reconnaissance
95(7)
6.4.1.1 Underground Storage Tanks
97(1)
6.4.1.2 Above Ground Storage Tanks
98(1)
6.4.1.3 Drum Storage Areas
99(1)
6.4.1.4 Industrial Establishments
99(1)
6.4.1.5 Dry Cleaners
100(1)
6.4.1.6 Septic Systems
100(1)
6.4.1.7 Electrical Transformers
101(1)
6.4.1.8 Evidence of a Subsurface Investigations
102(1)
6.4.1.9 Controlled Substances
102(1)
6.4.2 Reconnaissance of Adjoining Properties
102(1)
6.4.3 Reconnaissance of the Site Vicinity
103(1)
6.4.4 Interviews of Knowledgeable Parties
103(1)
6.4.5 User Responsibilities
104(1)
6.4.6 Site History Review
105(4)
6.4.6.1 Historical Aerial Photographs
105(2)
6.4.6.2 Fire Insurance Maps
107(1)
6.4.6.3 Local Street Directories
107(2)
6.4.7 Local Agency Review
109(2)
6.4.8 Database Search of Regulated Properties
111(7)
6.4.8.1 Mandatory Database Searches
112(2)
6.4.8.2 Additional Database Searches
114(1)
6.4.8.3 Vapor Intrusion Assessment under the E1527 Standard
114(1)
6.5 Limits of Due Diligence Research
115(2)
6.6 Report Preparation
117(1)
6.7 Phase I ESAs for Forested Land and Rural Properties
117(1)
6.8 Preliminary Assessments under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
118(5)
6.8.1 Structure of the Preliminary Assessment under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
118(1)
6.8.2 Evaluation of Waste Characteristics
119(1)
6.8.3 Likelihood of a Release
119(1)
6.8.4 Evaluating the Four Pathways and Exposure Routes
119(3)
6.8.4.1 Groundwater Pathway
119(1)
6.8.4.2 Surface Water Pathway
120(1)
6.8.4.3 Soil Exposure Route
121(1)
6.8.4.4 Air Pathway
122(1)
6.8.5 Hazard Ranking System
122(1)
6.9 Environmental Due Diligence for RCRA CORRACTS Sites
123(1)
6.10 Environmental Consultants and Environmental Due Diligence
124(1)
Problems and Exercises
125(1)
Bibliography
125(2)
7 Site Investigations
127(36)
7.1 Initiating the Investigation
127(2)
7.2 Developing the Scope of Work
129(9)
7.2.1 Establishing Data Quality Objectives
129(1)
7.2.2 Conceptual Site Model
130(3)
7.2.3 Sampling and Analysis Plan
133(3)
7.2.4 Quality Assurance Project Plan
136(1)
7.2.5 Sample Analysis
136(2)
7.2.5.1 Fixed-Base Laboratory Analysis
136(1)
7.2.5.2 On-Site Analysis
137(1)
7.3 Preparing to Investigate a Site
138(4)
7.3.1 Health and Safety Considerations
138(2)
7.3.2 Utility Mark-outs
140(1)
7.3.3 Surface Geophysical Surveys
140(2)
7.4 Soil Sampling
142(8)
7.4.1 Test Pits
142(1)
7.4.2 Boreholes
143(4)
7.4.3 Soil Observations and Sampling
147(1)
7.4.4 Field Quality Control
148(1)
7.4.4.1 Decontamination
148(1)
7.4.4.2 Field Quality Control Samples
149(1)
7.4.5 Sample Handling Procedures
149(1)
7.5 Soil Gas Investigations
150(1)
7.6 Groundwater Investigations
151(5)
7.6.1 Permanent Monitoring Wells
151(5)
7.6.1.1 Monitoring Well Installation
151(1)
7.6.1.2 Monitoring Well Development
152(1)
7.6.1.3 Monitoring Well Sampling
153(3)
7.6.2 Temporary Well Points
156(1)
7.7 Interpreting and Documenting the Results of the Sampling and Analysis
156(3)
7.7.1 Boring Logs
156(1)
7.7.2 Data Reduction and Interpretation
157(1)
7.7.3 Site Investigation Report
158(1)
7.8 Site Investigations and Environmental Consultants
159(1)
Problems and Exercises
159(1)
Bibliography
159(4)
Section II Site Investigations and Remediations
8 Remedial Investigations and Remedial Design
163(28)
8.1 Remedial Investigation of Soils
163(4)
8.1.1 Delineation of Soil Contamination
163(2)
8.1.1.1 Single-Point Compliance
163(1)
8.1.1.2 Identifying a Concentration Gradient
164(1)
8.1.1.3 Compliance Averaging
165(1)
8.1.2 Field Screening during Soil Delineation
165(1)
8.1.3 Obtaining Quantitative Soil and Bedrock Data
166(1)
8.1.3.1 Soil and Bedrock Cores
166(1)
8.1.3.2 Borehole Logging
166(1)
8.2 Remedial Investigation of Groundwater
167(6)
8.2.1 Calculating Groundwater Elevation
167(1)
8.2.2 Calculating Groundwater Flow Direction
168(2)
8.2.3 Contaminant Plume Mapping
170(1)
8.2.4 Delineation of Groundwater Contamination
171(1)
8.2.4.1 Vertical Delineation of Groundwater Contamination Using Monitoring Wells
171(1)
8.2.4.2 Membrane Interface Probes
172(1)
8.2.5 Computer Modeling of Groundwater Plumes
172(1)
8.3 Geographic Information Systems
173(1)
8.4 Remedial Investigation Report
174(1)
8.5 Establishing Cleanup Goals
175(7)
8.5.1 Generic Remediation Goals
176(1)
8.5.2 Setting Site-Specific Cleanup Goals Using Risk Assessment
177(5)
8.5.2.1 Exposure Assessment
177(2)
8.5.2.2 Toxicity Assessment
179(2)
8.5.2.3 Risk Characterization
181(1)
8.6 Remedial Action Design
182(2)
8.6.1 Waste Characterization
182(1)
8.6.2 Groundwater Data Used to Design the Remedial Action
182(2)
8.6.2.1 Aquifer Analysis
182(1)
8.6.2.2 Slug Test
183(1)
8.6.2.3 Pump Test
183(1)
8.6.3 Treatability Studies and Pilot Tests
184(1)
8.7 Remedial Action Selection Criteria
184(2)
8.7.1 Feasibility Study
185(6)
8.7.1.1 No Action Alternative
185(1)
8.7.1.2 Determining Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements
185(1)
8.8 Record of Decision under Superfund
186(1)
8.9 Remedial Investigations, Remedial Design, and Environmental Consultants
187(1)
Problems and Exercises
188(1)
Bibliography
188(3)
9 Remedial Actions
191(24)
9.1 Remediation by Pathway Removal
191(2)
9.1.1 Engineering and Institutional Controls
191(1)
9.1.2 Monitored Natural Attenuation
192(1)
9.1.3 In Situ Vitrification
193(1)
9.1.4 In Situ Solidification
193(1)
9.2 Remediation by Ex Situ Source Removal
193(6)
9.2.1 Removal of Light, Non-aqueous Phase Liquid
193(2)
9.2.2 Soil Remediation by Excavation
195(1)
9.2.2.1 Community Air Monitoring
195(1)
9.2.2.2 Verification Sampling
196(1)
9.2.3 Groundwater Remediation by Pump-and-Treat
196(2)
9.2.4 Steam-Enhanced Extraction
198(1)
9.2.5 Remediation in Biopiles
198(1)
9.3 Remediation by In Situ Source Treatment
199(10)
9.3.1 Soil Vapor Extraction
199(2)
9.3.2 Air Sparging
201(1)
9.3.3 Soil Flushing
201(1)
9.3.4 Thermal Remediation
202(1)
9.3.5 In Situ Chemical Treatment
202(4)
9.3.5.1 In Situ Chemical Oxidation
203(2)
9.3.5.2 In Situ Chemical Reduction
205(1)
9.3.5.3 Chemical Treatment of Metal Contaminants
206(1)
9.3.6 In Situ Bioremediation
206(1)
9.3.7 Bioventing
207(1)
9.3.8 Permeable Reactive Barrier
208(1)
9.4 Performance Monitoring
209(1)
9.5 Landfill Closures
210(2)
9.5.1 Landfill Capping
210(1)
9.5.2 Methane Venting System
210(1)
9.5.3 Leachate Collection System
211(1)
9.6 Remediation and Environmental Consultants
212(1)
Problems and Exercises
212(1)
Bibliography
212(3)
10 Vapor Intrusion Investigation and Mitigation
215(18)
10.1 What Is Vapor Intrusion?
215(1)
10.2 Conceptual Site Model of Vapor Intrusion
216(1)
10.3 Identifying Vapor Intrusion during Due Diligence
217(2)
10.3.1 Vapor Intrusion under the ASTM 1527 Standard
217(1)
10.3.2 Vapor Encroachment under the ASTM 2600 Standard
217(2)
10.3.2.1 Tier I of a Vapor Encroachment Screen
217(1)
10.3.2.2 Tier II of a Vapor Encroachment Screen-File Review
218(1)
10.4 Vapor Intrusion Survey Triggers
219(2)
10.4.1 Generic Horizontal Trigger Distances
219(1)
10.4.2 Calculating Site-Specific Trigger Distances
220(1)
10.4.3 Triggering Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater
220(1)
10.4.4 Establishing Indoor Air Target Values
221(1)
10.5 Vapor Intrusion Investigation
221(6)
10.5.1 Pre-sampling Survey
221(1)
10.5.2 Indoor Air Sampling
222(1)
10.5.3 Sub-slab Sampling
222(1)
10.5.4 Ambient Air Sampling
223(1)
10.5.5 Near Slab Sampling
224(1)
10.5.6 Vapor Testing on Vacant Land
224(1)
10.5.7 Sample Analysis
224(1)
10.5.8 Interpreting the Results
224(3)
10.6 Vapor Intrusion Mitigation
227(2)
10.6.1 Vapor Barrier Design and Construction
228(1)
10.6.2 Sub-slab Depressurization System Design and Construction
228(1)
10.7 Vapor Intrusion and Environmental Consultants
229(1)
Problems and Exercises
230(1)
Bibliography
230(3)
Section III Land Development and Redevelopment
11 Brownfields
233(12)
11.1 Urban Decay and Urban Renewal
233(1)
11.2 The Brownfields Act
233(2)
11.2.1 Formal Definition of a Brownfield
233(1)
11.2.2 Practical Definition of a Brownfield
234(1)
11.3 Objectives of the Brownfields Act
235(3)
11.3.1 Liability Protections under the Brownfields Act
235(1)
11.3.1.1 Relief from Superfund Liability
235(1)
11.3.1.2 Relief from Off-site Contamination Concerns
236(1)
11.3.2 Economic Incentives under the Brownfields Act
236(10)
11.3.2.1 Brownfields Assessment Grants
236(1)
11.3.2.2 Low Interest or No Interest Loans
237(1)
11.3.2.3 Tax Abatements and Tax Forgiveness
237(1)
11.3.2.4 Tax Credits
237(1)
11.3.2.5 Tax Increment Financing
237(1)
11.3.2.6 Insurance Protection
238(1)
11.4 Integrating Brownfields Redevelopment with Urban Redevelopment
238(1)
11.5 Cleanup of a Brownfields Site
239(2)
11.6 Brownfields and Environmental Consultants
241(2)
Bibliography
243(2)
12 Ecological Investigation, Protection, and Restoration
245(22)
12.1 Surface Water and Sediment Investigation and Mitigation
246(6)
12.1.1 Pollution Sources
246(1)
12.1.2 Pollution Pathways in Surface Waters
246(1)
12.1.3 Surface Water Sampling and Analysis
247(1)
12.1.4 Sediment Sampling
248(1)
12.1.5 Ecological Risk Assessment
249(1)
12.1.6 Surface Water Restoration
250(1)
12.1.7 Sediment Remediation
251(1)
12.1.8 Cultural Eutrophication and Mitigation
251(1)
12.2 Wetland Identification, Delineation, and Mitigation
252(9)
12.2.1 Definition of Wetlands
253(1)
12.2.2 Wetland Hydrology
253(1)
12.2.3 Hydric Soils
253(1)
12.2.4 Wetland Vegetation
254(1)
12.2.5 Classifying Wetlands
254(1)
12.2.6 Background Research on Wetlands
255(1)
12.2.7 Field Mapping of Wetlands
256(3)
12.2.8 Wetlands Restoration and Creation
259(1)
12.2.9 Compensatory Mitigation
260(1)
12.3 Threatened and Endangered Species and Their Habitats
261(2)
12.3.1 Publicly Available Information on Threatened and Endangered Species
262(1)
12.3.2 Field Surveying
262(1)
12.4 Invasive Species
263(1)
12.5 Ecological Management and Environmental Consultants
264(1)
Problems and Exercises
265(1)
Bibliography
265(2)
13 Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation
267(16)
13.1 The National Environmental Policy Act Project Scoping and Agency Participation
268(3)
13.1.1 Categorical Exclusion
269(1)
13.1.2 Environmental Impact Statement
269(2)
13.1.2.1 Notice of Intent
269(1)
13.1.2.2 Draft Environmental Impact Statement
269(1)
13.1.2.3 Final Environmental Impact Statement
270(1)
13.1.2.4 Environmental Mitigation Plan
270(1)
13.1.3 Environmental Assessment
271(1)
13.1.4 Public Participation
271(1)
13.2 Technical Evaluation for the National Environmental Policy Act
271(9)
13.2.1 Physiography, Geology, and Seismicity
271(1)
13.2.2 Groundwater
272(1)
13.2.3 Water Supply
272(1)
13.2.4 Surface Waters
272(1)
13.2.5 Wild and Scenic Rivers
273(1)
13.2.6 Wetlands
273(1)
13.2.7 Flood Plains
273(1)
13.2.8 Coastal Barrier Resources
273(1)
13.2.9 Natural Resources
274(1)
13.2.10 Wildlife, Wildlife Habitat, and Threatened and Endangered Species
274(1)
13.2.11 Vegetation
274(1)
13.2.12 Air Quality
274(2)
13.2.13 Farmland Protection
276(1)
13.2.14 Noise
277(1)
13.2.15 Cultural Resources
278(1)
13.2.16 Transportation
278(1)
13.2.17 Socioeconomics
279(1)
13.3 Cumulative and Indirect Impacts of the Project
280(1)
13.4 The National Environmental Policy Act Process and Environmental Consultants
281(1)
Problems and Exercises
281(1)
Bibliography
281(2)
14 Drinking Water Testing and Mitigation
283(16)
14.1 Introduction
283(1)
14.2 History of Lead in Drinking Water
283(1)
14.3 Health Effects of Lead in Drinking Water
284(1)
14.4 Health Effects of Copper in Drinking Water
285(1)
14.5 Lead and Copper Rule
285(1)
14.6 Investigating Sources of Lead in Drinking Water
286(1)
14.7 Investigating for the Presence of Lead and Copper in Drinking Water
287(5)
14.7.1 Developing a "Plumbing Profile"
288(1)
14.7.2 Development of a Lead Content Sampling Plan
288(2)
14.7.3 Sampling for Lead and Copper in Drinking Water
290(2)
14.8 Lead and Copper Mitigation
292(1)
14.9 Drinking Water Testing and Environmental Consultants
293(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
293(1)
Bibliography
294(5)
Section IV Indoor Environmental Concerns
15 Asbestos Identification and Abatement
299(34)
15.1 Introduction
299(4)
15.1.1 Types of Asbestiforms
299(1)
15.1.2 Health Problems Related to Asbestos
300(1)
15.1.3 Regulatory Framework for Asbestos
301(1)
15.1.4 Types of Asbestos-Containing Materials
301(1)
15.1.5 Components of Buildings
302(1)
15.2 Classifying Suspect Materials
303(4)
15.3 Functional Spaces
307(1)
15.4 Performing the Asbestos Survey
307(3)
15.4.1 Designing the Survey
307(1)
15.4.2 Sampling Homogeneous Materials
308(1)
15.4.3 Bulk Sampling Procedures
309(1)
15.4.4 Sampling Layered Materials
309(1)
15.5 Laboratory Analysis of Bulk Samples
310(2)
15.6 Hazard Assessment
312(5)
15.6.1 Physical Hazard Assessment
312(1)
15.6.2 Classifying the Condition of the Asbestos-Containing Building Materials
312(3)
15.6.3 Classifying the Potential for Disturbance of Asbestos-Containing Building Materials
315(1)
15.6.4 Hazard Ranking
316(1)
15.6.5 Air Monitoring for a Hazard Assessment
317(1)
15.7 Asbestos Abatement
317(12)
15.7.1 Types of Asbestos Abatement
317(1)
15.7.2 Asbestos Abatement Projects by Size
317(1)
15.7.3 Designing the Removal Project
317(1)
15.7.4 Preparing for Asbestos Removal
318(5)
15.7.4.1 Preparing the Work Area for the Large Asbestos Project
318(1)
15.7.4.2 Construction of Decontamination Units
319(1)
15.7.4.3 Critical Barriers
320(1)
15.7.4.4 Plasticizing Floors and Walls
321(1)
15.7.4.5 Electrical Lock-out
321(1)
15.7.4.6 Establishing Negative Pressure
321(2)
15.7.5 Removing the Asbestos-Containing Material
323(3)
15.7.5.1 Wetting the Material
323(1)
15.7.5.2 Two-Stage ACM Removal
323(1)
15.7.5.3 Glovebag Removal
324(1)
15.7.5.4 Lockdown Encapsulation
325(1)
15.7.5.5 Two-Stage Cleaning and Poly Removal
325(1)
15.7.5.6 Waste Removal
325(1)
15.7.6 Air Monitoring Requirements
326(2)
15.7.6.1 Pre-abatement Air Sampling
326(1)
15.7.6.2 Air Sampling During Removal
327(1)
15.7.6.3 Clearance Air Monitoring
328(1)
15.7.7 Small and Minor Asbestos Projects
328(1)
15.7.8 Abatement by Encapsulation or Enclosure
328(1)
15.8 Operations and Maintenance for In-place Asbestos-Containing Material
329(1)
15.9 Asbestos Surveying and Abatement, and Environmental Consultants
329(1)
Problems and Exercises
330(1)
Bibliography
331(2)
16 Lead-Based Paint Surveying and Abatement
333(20)
16.1 Introduction
333(1)
16.1.1 Lead Hazards
333(1)
16.1.2 History of Lead in Paint
333(1)
16.2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Lead Standard
334(3)
16.3 United States Department of Housing and Urban Development Guidelines for Lead-Based Paint Inspections
337(5)
16.3.1 Lead-Based Paint and Lead Hazards
337(1)
16.3.2 Lead Paint Risk Assessment
338(5)
16.3.2.1 Data Research
338(1)
16.3.2.2 Site Walkthrough
339(1)
16.3.2.3 Designing and Implementing a Sampling Program
340(1)
16.3.2.4 Assigning Lead-Based Paint Hazard Levels
341(1)
16.4 Designing the Lead Paint Survey
342(1)
16.5 Lead Paint Sampling and Analysis
343(4)
16.5.1 Paint Chip Sampling
343(1)
16.5.2 Chemical Test Kits
343(1)
16.5.3 X-ray Fluorescence Machine
343(4)
16.5.3.1 Machine Calibration
344(1)
16.5.3.2 X-ray Fluorescence Testing Protocols
345(1)
16.5.3.3 Data Interpretation
345(2)
16.6 Data Documentation
347(1)
16.7 The Housing and Urban Development Guidelines for Lead-Based Paint Hazard Abatement
347(5)
16.7.1 Abatement by Enclosure
347(1)
16.7.2 Abatement by Encapsulation
347(1)
16.7.3 Abatement by Removal
348(5)
16.7.3.1 Worker Protection
348(1)
16.7.3.2 Protecting the Residents
348(1)
16.7.3.3 Preparing the Work Area
349(1)
16.7.3.4 Lead Paint Removal Procedures
350(1)
16.7.3.5 Clearance Wipe Sampling
351(1)
16.8 Lead Paint and Environmental Consultants
352(1)
Problems and Exercises
352(1)
Bibliography
352(1)
17 Indoor Air Quality Investigation and Mitigation
353(14)
17.1 Introduction
353(1)
17.1.1 History of Indoor Air Problems
353(1)
17.1.2 Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
354(1)
17.1.3 Indoor Air Investigation Triggers
354(1)
17.2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
354(3)
17.2.1 Poor Air Flow
354(1)
17.2.2 Combustion Products
355(1)
17.2.3 Dust and Particulates
355(1)
17.2.4 Ozone
355(1)
17.2.5 Volatile Organic Compounds
355(1)
17.2.6 Bioaerosols
356(1)
17.2.7 Tobacco Smoke
356(1)
17.2.8 Pesticides
356(1)
17.2.9 Subsurface Contamination
356(1)
17.3 Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Systems
357(2)
17.4 Performing the Indoor Air Quality Investigation
359(2)
17.4.1 Building Reconnaissance
359(1)
17.4.2 Interviews
360(1)
17.4.3 Diagnosing the Problem
361(1)
17.5 Air Measurement Methods
361(2)
17.5.1 Air Measurement Devices
361(1)
17.5.2 Locations of Air Measurements
362(1)
17.6 Air Sampling Methods
363(1)
17.6.1 Air Sampling Locations
363(1)
17.6.2 Air Sampling Methods
363(1)
17.7 Indoor Air Mitigation
364(1)
17.8 Indoor Air Quality and Environmental Consultants
365(1)
Problems and Exercises
365(1)
Bibliography
365(2)
18 Radon Investigation and Mitigation
367(8)
18.1 What Is Radon?
367(2)
18.2 Radon Investigations
369(2)
18.3 Radon Mitigation
371(2)
18.4 Radon Investigation and Mitigation, and Environmental Consultants
373(1)
Problems and Exercises
373(1)
Bibliography
373(2)
19 Mold Investigation and Mitigation
375(14)
19.1 Introduction
375(2)
19.1.1 Health Impacts from Mold
375(1)
19.1.2 Types of Toxic Molds
375(1)
19.1.3 Conditions Conducive to Mold Growth
376(1)
19.2 Conducting a Mold Survey
377(2)
19.2.1 Walk-through Reconnaissance
378(1)
19.2.2 Document Review and Interviews
378(1)
19.3 Mold Sampling and Analysis
379(4)
19.3.1 Bulk Sampling Methods
380(1)
19.3.2 Air Sampling for Mold
381(2)
19.3.3 Interpretation of Air Sampling Results
383(1)
19.4 Mold Remediation
383(3)
19.4.1 Water Intrusion Mitigation
383(1)
19.4.2 Worker Protection during Mold Remediation
384(1)
19.4.3 Mold Remediation Methods
384(1)
19.4.4 U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Guidelines for Workplace Preparation
385(1)
19.4.5 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System Remediation
386(1)
19.5 Mold Surveying and Remediation, and Environmental Consultants
386(1)
Problems and Exercises
387(1)
Bibliography
387(2)
Appendix A: List of Abbreviations 389(6)
Appendix B: State Environmental Departments 395(2)
Index 397
Benjamin Alter has been an environmental consultant for over 30 years. He is a Principal and Senior Vice President with GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. in its Fairfield, New Jersey office. Prior to becoming a consultant, Alter was a geophysicist in the oil industry, tasked with exploring for oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in geology and mathematics from SUNY/Albany, a Master of Science degree in geophysics from Cornell University, and a Master of Business Administration degree in finance and management from Columbia University. As an environmental consultant, he has designed and managed multiple remedial investigations and remediations and has conducted hundreds of site assessments throughout the United States. Alter has provided litigation services for numerous hazardous waste cases and has been a key contributor in the development of New Jersey's Licensed Site Remediation Professional (LSRP) program. He sits on the Board of Trustees of the LSRP Association and co-chairs its College Outreach Committee. He also sits on the Board of Trustees of the LSRPA Foundation, which he founded. The LSRPAF provides scholarships to undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in becoming environmental consultants in the State of New Jersey. Alter was an adjunct professor at the Hunter College School of Health Sciences in New York City from 2000 to 2009, which was the initial source of inspiration for this book. He has published numerous articles and given numerous presentations on environmental investigations and remediations and currently teaches a continuing education course entitled, "Environmental Due Diligence in New Jersey".