Introduction to Polymer Chemistry 4th New edition [Hardback]

(Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton USA)
  • Formāts: Hardback, 560 pages, height x width: 279x216 mm, weight: 1928 g, 350 Illustrations, color
  • Izdošanas datums: 11-Jan-2017
  • Izdevniecība: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498737617
  • ISBN-13: 9781498737616
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  • Formāts: Hardback, 560 pages, height x width: 279x216 mm, weight: 1928 g, 350 Illustrations, color
  • Izdošanas datums: 11-Jan-2017
  • Izdevniecība: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498737617
  • ISBN-13: 9781498737616
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Introduction to Polymer Chemistry provides undergraduate students with a much-needed, well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of natural, synthetic, inorganic, and organic polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this fourth edition continues to provide detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Building on undergraduate work in foundational courses, the text fulfills the American Chemical Society Committee on Professional Training (ACS CPT) in-depth course requirement

Recenzijas

The following review appeared in the September 2017 issue of CHOICE: In the autumn of a long, productive career, polymer chemist Carraher (Florida Atlantic Univ.) gives readers a pentimento-a visible tracing of the 1,000 papers and over 75 books-that makes him and now the fourth edition (1st ed., CH, Jun'07, 44-5651) of his opus so distinguished. Any individual who needs an introduction to polymer chemistry should own a copy-especially beginners who otherwise have no reason to know the man and his work. In 16 business-as-usual, unblemished chapters covering 550 pages, Carraher defines one of the penultimate pedagogical limits that anchors science and engineering to the real world of chemistry and materials-the macromolecular scale of length. Nomenclature and morphology come first in early chapters, then a natural progression through natural and unnatural (synthetic) polymers. Methods and mechanisms are included and always interesting; in addition, physical and chemical tests based on useful properties abound. To its credit, the work is not a monograph, yet it has the appeal of one for its attention to practical applications, topical diversity, and currency. It is a tip-of-the-hat to the rich history that marks the development of polymers; and, at a little over 100 bucks, kudos to the author, the editor(s), and the publisher. --L. W. Fine, Columbia University Summing Up: Essential. Lower-division undergraduates and above; faculty and professionals.

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Author xix
How to Study Polymers xxi
Polymer Nomenclature xxiii
American Chemistry Society Committee on Professional Training Requirements xxvii
Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers 1(26)
1.1 History of Polymers
1(10)
1.2 Why Polymers?
11(3)
1.3 Today's Marketplace
14(3)
1.4 Environmental Assessment
17(4)
1.4.1 Environmental Impact Assessment
19(1)
1.4.2 Ecological Footprint
20(1)
1.4.3 Life Cycle Assessment
20(1)
1.5 Managing Sustainability
21(2)
Summary
23(1)
Glossary
24(1)
Exercises
25(1)
Further Reading
25(1)
General Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
26(1)
Chapter 2 Polymer Structure (Morphology) 27(28)
2.1 Stereochemistry of Polymers
28(6)
2.2 Molecular Interactions
34(7)
2.2.1 Glass Transition and Melt Transition
38(2)
2.2.2 Secondary Structures
40(1)
2.3 Polymer Crystals
41(3)
2.4 Amorphous Bulk State
44(1)
2.5 Polymer Structure-Property Relationships
45(2)
2.6 Crystalline and Amorphous Combinations
47(2)
2.7 Cross-Linking
49(1)
Summary
50(1)
Glossary
51(1)
Exercises
52(1)
Further Reading
53(2)
Chapter 3 Molecular Weight of Polymers 55(32)
3.1 Introduction
55(2)
3.2 Solubility
57(3)
3.2.1 Basic Concepts
57(1)
3.2.2 Theoretical Approaches to Solubility
58(2)
3.3 Average Molecular Weight Values
60(3)
3.4 Fractionation of Polydisperse Systems
63(1)
3.5 Chromatography
64(3)
3.5.1 General Chromatography
64(1)
3.5.2 lon-Exchange Chromatography
64(1)
3.5.3 Affinity Chromatography
64(1)
3.5.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
65(1)
3.5.5 Electrophoresis
65(1)
3.5.6 Gel Permeation Chromatography
66(1)
3.5.7 Size Exclusion Chromatography
66(1)
3.6 Colligative Molecular Weights
67(2)
3.6.1 Osmometry
67(1)
3.6.2 End-Group Analysis
68(1)
3.6.3 Ebulliometry and Cryometry
68(1)
3.7 Light-Scattering Photometry
69(5)
3.8 Other Techniques
74(2)
3.8.1 Ultracentrifugation
74(1)
3.8.2 Mass Spectrometry
75(1)
3.9 Viscometry
76(5)
3.9.1 Solution Viscosity
76(4)
3.9.2 Melted Polymer Viscosities
80(1)
Summary
81(1)
Glossary
82(2)
Exercises
84(1)
Further Reading
85(2)
Chapter 4 Naturally Occurring Polymers 87(72)
4.1 Polysaccharides
89(2)
4.2 Cellulose
91(8)
4.2.1 Paper
95(3)
4.2.2 Paper Recycling
98(1)
4.3 Cellulose-Regenerating Processes
99(3)
4.3.1 Dissolving and Precipitation of Cellulose
99(1)
4.3.2 Wrinkle-Free Fabric
100(2)
4.4 Esters and Ethers of Cellulose
102(4)
4.4.1 Inorganic Esters
103(1)
4.4.2 Organic Esters
103(2)
4.4.3 Organic Ethers
105(1)
4.5 Starch
106(3)
4.6 Other Polysaccharides
109(5)
4.6.1 Glycogen
109(1)
4.6.2 Dextrans
110(1)
4.6.3 Chitin
110(1)
4.6.4 Chitosan
111(1)
4.6.5 Heparin
112(1)
4.6.6 Hyaluronic Acid
113(1)
4.6.7 Chondroitin Sulfates
113(1)
4.6.8 Arabinogalactans
113(1)
4.6.9 Carrageenans, Agar, and Agarose
113(1)
4.7 Proteins
114(16)
4.7.1 Basics
114(2)
4.7.2 Primary Structure
116(1)
4.7.3 Secondary Structure
116(8)
4.7.3.1 Keratins
118(2)
4.7.3.2 Silk
120(3)
4.7.3.3 Wool
123(1)
4.7.4 Tertiary Structure
124(4)
4.7.4.1 Globular Proteins
124(2)
4.7.4.2 Fibrous Proteins
126(1)
4.7.4.3 Elastin
127(1)
4.7.4.4 Membrane Proteins
128(1)
4.7.5 Quaternary Structure
128(2)
4.8 Nucleic Acids
130(7)
4.8.1 Basics
130(4)
4.8.2 Flow of Biological Information
134(2)
4.8.3 Next Steps
136(1)
4.9 Naturally Occurring Polyisoprenes and Other Synthetic Elastomers
137(7)
4.9.1 Balloons
141(1)
4.9.2 Resins
142(1)
4.9.3 Rosin and Related Materials
143(1)
4.10 Lignin
144(9)
4.11 Melanins
145(2)
4.12 Polymer Structure
147(1)
4.13 Genetic Engineering
148(2)
4.14 DNA Profiling
150(2)
4.15 Asphalt
152(1)
Summary
153(1)
Glossary
154(2)
Exercises
156(1)
Further Reading
157(2)
Chapter 5 Step-Reaction Polymerization (Polycondensation Reactions) 159(48)
5.1 Comparison between Polymer Type and Kinetics of Polymerization
159(5)
5.2 Introduction
164(1)
5.3 Stepwise Kinetics
164(5)
5.4 Polycondensation Mechanisms
169(1)
5.5 Polyesters and Polycarbonates
170(8)
5.6 Synthetic Polyamides
178(7)
5.7 Polymides
185(1)
5.8 Polybenzimidazoles and Related Polymers
186(1)
5.9 Polyurethanes and Polyureas
187(3)
5.10 Polysulfides
190(1)
5.11 Polyethers
191(2)
5.12 Polysulfones
193(1)
5.13 Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) and Polyketones
194(1)
5.14 Phenolic and Amino Plastics
195(2)
5.15 Synthetic Routes
197(2)
5.16 Liquid Crystals
199(2)
5.17 Microfibers
201(1)
Summary
202(1)
Glossary
203(1)
Exercises
204(2)
Further Reading
206(1)
Chapter 6 Ionic Chain Reaction and Complex Coordination Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) 207(38)
6.1 Cationic Polymerization
209(3)
6.1.1 Kinetics of Cationic Polymerization
209(2)
6.1.2 Poly(Vinyl Isobutyl Ether)
211(1)
6.1.3 Polyoxymethylene
212(1)
6.1.4 Poly(Ethylene Oxide)
212(1)
6.1.5 Polyterpenes and Related Polymers
212(1)
6.2 Anionic Polymerization
212(3)
6.2.1 Kinetics of Anionic Polymerization
212(2)
6.2.2 Cis-1,4-Polyisoprene
214(1)
6.2.3 Living Polymers
214(1)
6.3 Stereoregularity and Stereogeometry
215(1)
6.4 Polymerization with Complex Coordination Catalysts
216(1)
6.5 Soluble Stereoregulating Catalysis
217(3)
6.6 Polyethylenes
220(9)
6.6.1 Introduction Polyethylenes
220(4)
6.6.2 High-Density Polyethylene
224(1)
6.6.3 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene
224(2)
6.6.4 Very-Low-Density Polyethylene
226(1)
6.6.5 Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene
226(1)
6.6.6 Ultralinear Polyethylene
226(1)
6.6.7 Cross-Linked Polyethylene
226(1)
6.6.8 Medium-Density Polyethylene
226(1)
6.6.9 Polymethylene
227(1)
6.6.10 Shopping Bags
227(2)
6.7 Polypropylene
229(6)
6.7.1 History
229(3)
6.7.2 Stereospecific Structures
232(1)
6.7.3 Early Production
233(1)
6.7.4 Forms of Polypropylene
234(1)
6.8 Polymers from 1,4-Dienes
235(2)
6.8.1 Introduction
235(1)
6.8.2 Butadiene Rubber
235(1)
6.8.3 ABS
235(1)
6.8.4 High-Impact Polystyrene
236(1)
6.8.5 Polyisoprene
236(1)
6.8.6 Polychloroprene
237(1)
6.9 Polyisobutylene
237(1)
6.10 Metathesis Reactions
238(1)
6.11 Zwitterionic Polymerization
239(1)
6.12 Isomerization Polymerization
239(1)
6.13 Precipitation Polymerization
240(1)
Summary
240(1)
Glossary
241(1)
Exercises
242(2)
Further Reading
244(1)
Chapter 7 Free Radical Chain Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) 245(34)
7.1 Initiators for Free Radical Chain Polymerization
245(3)
7.2 Mechanism for Free Radical Chain Polymerization
248(7)
7.3 Chain Transfer
255(2)
7.4 Polymerization Techniques
257(5)
7.4.1 Bulk Polymerization
257(2)
7.4.2 Suspension Polymerization
259(1)
7.4.3 Solution Polymerization
259(1)
7.4.4 Emulsion Polymerization
260(2)
7.5 Fluorine-Containing Polymers
262(4)
7.5.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene
262(2)
7.5.2 Poly(Vinyl Fluoride)
264(1)
7.5.3 Other Fluorine-Containing Polymers
265(1)
7.6 Polystyrene
266(2)
7.7 Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
268(3)
7.8 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)
271(2)
7.9 Polyacrylonitrile
273(1)
7.10 Solid-State Irradiation Polymerization
274(1)
7.11 Plasma Polymerizations
274(1)
Summary
275(1)
Glossary
276(1)
Exercises
277(1)
Further Reading
278(1)
Chapter 8 Copolymerization 279(26)
8.1 Kinetics of Copolymerization
280(3)
8.2 The Q-e Scheme
283(1)
8.3 Commercial Copolymers
284(1)
8.4 Block Copolymers
284(2)
8.5 Graft Copolymers
286(1)
8.6 Elastomers
286(3)
8.6.1 General
286(2)
8.6.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers
288(1)
8.6.3 SBR Copolymers
288(1)
8.6.4 Sales and Flammability
289(1)
8.7 Blends
289(4)
8.7.1 General
289(1)
8.7.2 Immiscible Blends
290(1)
8.7.3 Immiscible Blends: Remainder of the Section on Immiscible Blends
290(1)
8.7.4 Miscible Blends
291(2)
8.8 Polymer Mixtures: IPNs and Alloys
293(1)
8.9 Dendrites
293(2)
8.10 lonomers
295(1)
8.11 Fluoroelastomers
296(1)
8.12 Nitrile Rubber
296(2)
8.12.1 Laboratory Gloves
297(1)
8.13 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Terpolymers
298(1)
8.14 EPDM Rubber
299(1)
Summary
300(1)
Glossary
300(1)
Exercises
301(1)
Further Reading
302(3)
Chapter 9 Organometallic and Metalloid Polymers 305(18)
9.1 Introduction
305(1)
9.2 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms
306(3)
9.3 Condensation Organometallic Polymers
309(5)
9.4 Coordination Polymers
314(2)
9.5 Addition Polymers
316(3)
Summary
319(1)
Glossary
320(1)
Exercises
320(1)
Further Reading
320(3)
Chapter 10 Inorganic Polymers 323(46)
10.1 Introduction
323(1)
10.2 Portland Cement
323(3)
10.3 Other Cements
326(2)
10.4 Silicates
328(4)
10.4.1 Network
330(1)
10.4.2 Layer
331(1)
10.4.3 Chain
332(1)
10.5 Silicon Dioxide (Amorphous)
332(9)
10.5.1 Kinds of Glass
334(3)
10.5.2 Safety Glass
337(1)
10.5.3 New Applications of Glass
338(1)
10.5.4 Seeing Glass Lenses
339(2)
10.6 Sol-Gel
341(2)
10.6.1 Aerogels
341(2)
10.7 Silicon Dioxide (Crystalline Forms): Quartz Forms
343(2)
10.8 Silicon Dioxide in Electronic Chips
345(1)
10.9 Asbestos
345(1)
10.10 Fly Ash and Aluminosilicates
346(2)
10.11 Polymeric Carbon: Diamond
348(2)
10.12 Polymeric Carbon: Graphite
350(1)
10.13 Internal Cyclization: Carbon Fibers and Related Materials
351(2)
10.14 Carbon Nanotubes
353(4)
10.14.1 General
353(1)
10.14.2 Structures
353(2)
10.14.3 Properties
355(2)
10.14.3.1 Electrical
355(1)
10.14.3.2 Mechanical
356(1)
10.14.3.3 Field Emission
356(1)
10.14.3.4 Hydrogen and Ion Storage
356(1)
10.14.3.5 Chemical and Genetic Probes
356(1)
10.14.3.6 Analytical Tools
356(1)
10.14.3.7 Superconductors
356(1)
10.14.4 Health Issues
357(1)
10.14.5 Potential
357(1)
10.15 Bitumens
357(1)
10.16 Carbon Black
358(2)
10.17 Polysulfur
360(1)
10.18 Ceramics
360(2)
10.19 High Temperature Superconductors
362(1)
10.19.1 Discovery of the 123-Compound
362(1)
10.19.2 Structure of the 123-Compound
362(1)
10.20 Zeolites
363(1)
Summary
364(1)
Glossary
365(1)
Exercises
366(1)
Further Reading
366(3)
Chapter 11 Reactions of Polymers 369(26)
11.1 Reactions with Polyolefins and Polyenes
369(1)
11.2 Reactions of Aromatic and Aliphatic Pendant Groups
370(1)
11.3 Degradation
371(2)
11.4 Cross-Linking
373(1)
11.5 Reactivities of End Groups
373(1)
11.6 Supramolecules and Self-Assembly
374(3)
11.7 Transfer and Retention of Oxygen
377(4)
11.8 Nature's Macromolecular Catalysts
381(4)
11.9 Photosynthesis
385(3)
11.9.1 General
385(2)
11.9.2 Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria
387(1)
11.9.3 Green Sulfur Bacteria
388(1)
11.10 Mechanisms of Physical Energy Absorption
388(2)
11.11 Breakage of Polymeric Materials
390(2)
Summary
392(1)
Glossary
392(1)
Exercises
393(1)
Further Reading
394(1)
Chapter 12 Testing and Spectrometric Characterization of Polymers 395(26)
12.1 Spectronic Characterization of Polymers
396(5)
12.1.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
396(2)
12.1.2 Raman Spectroscopy
398(1)
12.1.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
398(2)
12.1.4 NMR Applications
400(1)
12.1.5 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
401(1)
12.1.6 X-Ray Spectroscopy
401(1)
12.2 Surface Characterization
401(6)
12.2.1 Attenuated Total Reflectance
402(1)
12.2.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
402(1)
12.2.3 Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy
403(1)
12.2.4 Electron Microscopy
403(1)
12.2.5 Scanning Probe Microscopy
403(3)
12.2.6 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
406(1)
12.2.7 Superresolution Fluorescence Microscopy
406(1)
12.3 Amorphous Region Determinations
407(1)
12.4 Thermal Analysis
407(2)
12.5 Thermal Property Tests
409(1)
12.5.1 Thermal Conductivity
409(1)
12.5.2 Thermal Expansion
410(1)
12.5.3 Glass Transition Temperatures
410(1)
12.6 Flammability
410(1)
12.7 Electrical Properties: Theory
410(2)
12.8 Electric Measurements
412(1)
12.9 Weatherability
413(1)
12.10 Optical Property Tests
414(1)
12.10.1 Index of Refraction
414(1)
12.10.2 Optical Clarity
415(1)
12.10.3 Absorption and Reflectance
415(1)
12.11 Chemical Resistance
415(1)
Summary
416(1)
Glossary
417(1)
Exercises
418(1)
Further Reading
419(2)
Chapter 13 Rheology and Physical Tests 421(16)
13.1 Rheology
421(6)
13.1.1 Rheology and Physical Tests
424(3)
13.1.2 Response Time
427(1)
13.2 Typical Stress-Strain Behavior
427(2)
13.3 Stress-Strain Relationships
429(2)
13.4 Specific Physical Tests
431(3)
13.4.1 Tensile Strength
431(1)
13.4.2 Tensile Strength of Inorganic and Metallic Fibers and Whiskers
432(1)
13.4.3 Hardness
433(1)
13.4.4 Failure
433(1)
Summary
434(1)
Glossary
434(1)
Exercises
435(1)
Further Reading
436(1)
Chapter 14 Additives 437(22)
14.1 Fillers
437(2)
14.2 Reinforcements
439(5)
14.2.1 Fibers and Resins
440(1)
14.2.2 Applications
441(3)
14.3 Nanocomposites
444(2)
14.4 Plasticizers
446(2)
14.5 Antioxidants
448(1)
14.6 Heat Stabilizers
448(1)
14.7 Ultraviolet Stabilizers
449(1)
14.8 Flame Retardants
449(1)
14.9 Colorants
450(1)
14.10 Curing Agents
451(1)
14.11 Antistatic Agents: Antistats
451(1)
14.12 Chemical Blowing Agents
452(1)
14.13 Compatibilizers
452(1)
14.14 Impact Modifiers
452(1)
14.15 Processing Aids
453(1)
14.16 Lubricants
453(1)
14.17 Microorganism Inhibitors
453(1)
Summary
453(1)
Glossary
454(1)
Exercises
455(1)
Further Reading
456(3)
Chapter 15 Synthesis of Reactants and Intermediates for Polymers 459(22)
15.1 Monomer Synthesis from Basic Feedstocks
459(8)
15.2 Reactants for Step-Reaction Polymerization
467(6)
15.3 Synthesis of Vinyl Monomers
473(4)
15.4 Search for Less Expensive Feedstocks
477(1)
Summary
478(1)
Glossary
478(1)
Exercises
479(1)
Further Reading
479(2)
Chapter 16 Polymer Technology 481(58)
16.1 Polymer Processing
481(4)
16.1.1 General
481(2)
16.1.2 Secondary Structures: Mesophases
483(2)
16.2 Fibers
485(3)
16.2.1 Polymer Processing: Spinning and Fiber Production
485(3)
16.2.1.1 Introduction
485(2)
16.2.1.2 Melt Spinning
487(1)
16.2.1.3 Dry Spinning
487(1)
16.2.1.4 Wet Spinning
487(1)
16.3 Elastomers
488(2)
16.3.1 Elastomer Processing
488(2)
16.4 Films and Sheets
490(1)
16.4.1 Calendering
491(1)
16.5 Polymeric Foams
491(1)
16.6 Reinforced Plastics (Composites) and Laminates
491(4)
16.6.1 Composites
491(1)
16.6.2 Particle-Reinforced Composites: Large-Particle Composites
492(1)
16.6.3 Fiber-Reinforced Composites
493(1)
16.6.4 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites
493(1)
16.6.5 Structural Composites
494(1)
16.6.6 Laminating
494(1)
16.7 Molding
495(5)
16.7.1 Injection Molding
496(1)
16.7.2 Blow Molding
497(1)
16.7.3 Rotational Molding
498(1)
16.7.4 Compression and Transfer Molding
499(1)
16.7.5 Thermoforming
500(1)
16.8 Casting
500(1)
16.9 Extrusion
500(3)
16.9.1 Processing
501(1)
16.9.2 Rainwear
502(1)
16.10 Coatings
503(2)
16.11 Adhesives
505(5)
16.12 Conductive Polymeric Materials
510(5)
16.12.1 Photoconductive and Photonic Polymers
510(1)
16.12.2 Electrically Conductive Polymers
511(4)
16.13 Drug Design and Activity
515(2)
16.14 Synthetic Biomedical Polymers
517(4)
16.15 Dental Materials
521(2)
16.16 Emerging Polymers
523(4)
16.17 Green Materials
527(6)
Summary
533(1)
Glossary
534(1)
Exercises
535(1)
Further Reading
536(3)
Appendix A: Structures of Common Polymers 539(4)
Appendix B: Symbols and Acronyms 543(4)
Appendix C: Comments on Health 547(2)
Appendix D: ISO 9000 and 14000 549(2)
Appendix E: Web Information 551(2)
Index 553
Charles E. Carraher, Jr. is Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. Recognized as Outstanding Chemist in the Southeast USA (1992) by the American Chemical Society and the recipient of a distinguished Service Award for his efforts in science education (1995) from the ACS's Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering, he is a Fellow of the American Institutes of Chemists (1975), Polymeric Materials (2006), Polymer Chemistry (2010) and the American Chemical Society (2010). Currently, he serves as Cochair of the ACS's joint Polymer Education Committee, on the Board of the Intersocietal Polymer Education Committee and has been a member of the ACS's Committee on Professional Training (CPT). He is associate editor of the Journal of Polymeric Materials and on the board of the Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials and the International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials. The author or coauthor of over 80 books and over 1100 articles, he has chaired/cochaired numerous national and international symposia. His research has led to the synthesis of over 75 new families of polymers. In 1984, he received the Outstanding Scientist and Engineering Award from the Engineers and Scientists Affiliate Societies Council for his work in science education and research, and in 1992 the Saltarilli Sigma Xi Award for his research efforts. Dr. Carraher was the recipient of the 2002 Distinguished Researcher Award from Allied Technologies. In 2016 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Award in Polymer Science by the Polymer Division.