Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest due to their potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially neoplasms. Interestingly, there is a huge imbalance between the number of proposed nanoplatforms and the few ones approved for clinical applications. This disequilibrium affects, in particular, noble metal nanoparticles, which present no approved platforms and few candidates in clinical trials because of the issue of persistence. This book comprises hot papers on (i) the main behaviors of nanomaterials, (ii) key features needed for clinical translation, and (iii) market analysis of nanomaterials on the bedside. The main aim of this book is to offer a more industrial/clinical point of view to students and researchers, together with the knowledge of regulatory agencies. It is a great reference for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students of nanotechnology and researchers in materials science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those with an interest in cancer theranostics.