Research Methods and Techniques in Architecture [Mīkstie vāki]

  • Formāts: Paperback / softback, 330 pages, height x width: 248x171 mm, weight: 680 g, 63 Line drawings, color; 20 Halftones, color; 39 Tables, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 16-Jul-2018
  • Izdevniecība: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138055980
  • ISBN-13: 9781138055988
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  • Formāts: Paperback / softback, 330 pages, height x width: 248x171 mm, weight: 680 g, 63 Line drawings, color; 20 Halftones, color; 39 Tables, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 16-Jul-2018
  • Izdevniecība: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138055980
  • ISBN-13: 9781138055988
Citas grāmatas par šo tēmu:

A scientific approach to architectural and architectonic research from the scope of just one discipline is no longer sufficient. With contemporary considerations such as behavior, health, and environmental protection, architects and students alike need holistic research methodologies that incorporate qualitative elements as well as more traditional quantitative ones. Research Methods and Techniques in Architecture examines research methodologies and tools applied in science and architectonic practice. Beginning with a thorough introduction to the main scientific, environmental, and architectural theories of the late twentieth century, the book guides the reader through the different aspects of architectural research design, building research teams, choosing applicable research methods, and representing research results.

Recenzijas

"The book by Elzbieta Niezabitowska sums up valuable, long-term research devoted to the application of scientific methods in architecture. It is the first such work, contributing discourse of Polish theoreticians. As a comprehensive and structured approach, can be used by both: young enthusiasts of space shaping and mature researchers studying architectural problems." Jan Slyk, PhD Architect, Professor at Warsaw University of Technology "Research and Methods and Techniques in Architecture brings attention to the complexities of architecture and of the designing process. The variables of importance are bundled together. The research approaches and methods necessary to enhance the knowledge base of architects and all designers must be tailor-made to deal with those complexities. They cannot be simply borrowed from the sciences. Elzbieta Niezabitowska succinctly presents the reader with a forthright and rigorous description, explanation, and analysis of the utility of the techniques available for developing theory and enhancing professional practice in the design fields. Constructing research approaches and methods is a highly creative act; Niezabitowska's book is a highly creative presentation of how best to fashion research from the array of techniques available and that may have to be formulated so that they are appropriate to the tasks that designers face." Jon Lang, Emeritus Professor, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales. "This overview of architectural research methods and the discussion of the complex and challenging relationship between architectural design, architectural research and science is both relevant in education, research and practice. Empirically tested theories, ex ante and ex post evaluations of designs and buildings, research by design and design studies are all necessary input to evidence based design and to provide the best possible fit with different interests and needs of clients, end users, and modern society." Dr. Theo J.M. van der Voordt, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology.

Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xv
Acronyms xvii
Introduction xix
1 The Relation Between Science, Theory of Architecture, and Practice
1(65)
1.1 A Brief History of Architectural Development Perceived as a Practical Discipline
4(4)
1.2 Causes of Development of Science in Architecture and Urban Planning
8(1)
1.3 Drawbacks of Science in Architecture
9(2)
1.4 Inter-, Multi-, and Transdisciplinarity of Architecture and Urban Planning
11(3)
1.5 Architecture as a Science: Literature Overview
14(17)
The Philosophical Reflection Trend: Literature Analysis
15(5)
A Research Trend in Architecture Aimed at Perfecting Design Practice
20(6)
Scientific Research Trend in Architecture
26(5)
1.6 Scientific Theories in Architecture: Select Examples
31(35)
The Environmental Theories That Influence the Creation of a New Paradigm of Architecture
32(8)
The Environmental Design Theory of Jon Lang
40(3)
Kevin Lynch's Theory of the Urban Space Structure
43(2)
The Theory of the Sign of Robert Venturi: Architecture as a Means of Communication
45(1)
The Privacy Gradient and Oscar Newman's "Defensible Space" Theory
46(5)
Christopher Alexander's Pattern Language: The Theory of Form Synthesis
51(1)
The Theory of the Phenomenological Approach of Christian Norberg-Schulz
52(1)
Stewart Brand's Theory of Transitions and a Stratified Construction of Architectural Objects
53(3)
Select Theoretical Conceptions Pertaining to the Research on Space Structure
56(4)
Conclusion
60(1)
Notes
60(1)
References
61(5)
2 The General Image of Science
66(28)
2.1 Introduction
66(7)
2.2 Philosophy and Its Role in the Development of Science
73(5)
2.3 Facts and Phenomena: Their Cognition and Interpretation
78(6)
Philosophical Interpretation of Facts
79(1)
Ideological Interpretation: Ideas and Doctrines
80(1)
Interpretation of Facts in the Sphere of Practice
80(1)
Scientific Interpretation
81(1)
Looking at Facts and Other Phenomena in Architecture
82(2)
2.4 The Processes of Mental Cognition
84(3)
2.5 Requirements for Research Results
87(1)
2.6 The Attitude of Scholars to Scientific Problems
88(6)
Notes
92(1)
References
92(2)
3 Basic Notions Applied in Science
94(19)
3.1 Defining of Notions in Science
94(2)
3.2 Paradigm
96(2)
3.3 Scientific Theories
98(4)
Grounded Theory
100(2)
3.4 Laws and Generalizations
102(1)
3.5 Research Problem
102(2)
3.6 Research Methods
104(7)
Research Assumptions, Theses
106(2)
Hypotheses
108(1)
Research Questions
109(1)
Dependent and Independent Variables in Empirical Research
110(1)
3.7 The Comparison of Research Methods, Techniques, and Tools
111(2)
References
111(2)
4 Scientific Research in Architecture
113(17)
4.1 The Aims of Research in Architecture
114(1)
4.2 Review of Literature that Pertains to the Methodology of Research in Architecture
115(3)
4.3 The Subject Matter and the Subject of Research in Architecture
118(1)
4.4 Scientific Research and Its Types
119(2)
4.5 Expert Research Versus Participation Research
121(2)
4.6 Methodology of Research Works and Its Component Parts
123(7)
The Strategy for Conducting Research (Organization, Selection of Methods, Tools, and Research Techniques)
124(1)
Research Tools
124(1)
Research Techniques
125(1)
Triangulation of Research
126(1)
Monitoring in Scientific Research
127(1)
Notes
128(1)
References
128(2)
5 Research Process Designing
130(8)
5.1 Basic Steps in Research Process Designing
131(1)
5.2 Building the Research Team
132(4)
5.3 Implementation of Research Results
136(1)
5.4 Research Financing
136(2)
Notes
137(1)
References
137(1)
6 Research Methods Applied in Architecture
138(50)
6.1 The Method of Logical Argumentation: An Analysis and Logical Construction
140(3)
6.2 The Method Based on Historical-Interpretative or Interpretative Research
143(5)
6.3 Experimental Research
148(2)
6.4 The Method of Quantitative and Statistical Research
150(4)
6.5 Modeling and Simulative Research
154(5)
6.6 Qualitative Research
159(14)
POE: A Special Variation of Qualitative Research in Architecture
168(5)
6.7 Case Studies
173(7)
6.8 Action Research Method: Interventional Research
180(1)
6.9 Heuristic and Forecasting Methods
181(2)
6.10 Mixed Methods
183(5)
Notes
184(1)
References
184(4)
7 Research Techniques
188(76)
7.1 Research Techniques and Research Methods
189(1)
7.2 Research Techniques Applied in Architectural Scientific Research
189(49)
Description, Explanation, and Interpretation
193(3)
Literature Research, Analysis, and Critique
196(1)
Field Trip, Walkthrough
197(2)
Collecting Documents, Artifacts, Photographs, Drawings, etc.
199(1)
Measurements
200(1)
Statistical Techniques and Surveys
200(10)
Correlations
210(2)
Comparative Studies
212(5)
Scaling Techniques
217(2)
Semantic Differential
219(2)
Observations
221(6)
Mapping
227(1)
Sorting
228(2)
Interviews
230(6)
Focus Group Interviews
236(2)
7.3 Research Techniques That Support Decision-Making Processes in Design and Strategic Development
238(20)
Workshops
239(1)
Adjacency Analysis
239(1)
Modeling: Physical, Graphic, Virtual
239(7)
Checklists and Scale Ratings
246(1)
SWOT Analyses
247(4)
Scenarios
251(3)
Heuristic and Prognosis Research Techniques
254(1)
Delphi Techniques
254(1)
Brainstorming
255(2)
Marketing Techniques
257(1)
Summary of Forecasting Techniques
257(1)
7.4 Pilot and Pretest
258(6)
Notes
259(1)
References
260(4)
8 Practical Activities Connected with the Realization of Research
264(17)
8.1 Design-Related Research
264(2)
8.2 Tools for Recording Research Results
266(6)
Description
267(1)
Tables
267(1)
Cross Tabulations/Matrices
268(1)
Graphical Charts, Schemes, Diagrams
268(4)
Graphical Models
272(1)
8.3 Tools for Checking the Quality of a Built Environment
272(4)
8.4 Techniques for Checking Credibility of the Results of Research
276(1)
8.5 Errors in Understanding, Errors in the Interpretation of the Results of Research
277(4)
Notes
278(1)
References
278(3)
9 Conclusions
281(6)
9.1 New Research Areas in Architecture
282(3)
9.2 The Role of Professional Organizations in Science Development in Architecture
285(2)
References
286(1)
Appendix 1 Preamble, Title Page, Surveys, Authorization for the Interviewer 287(5)
Appendix 2 The List of Research Tools Used When Checking the Quality of the Objects and Projects Based on Select Qualitative Criteria 292(4)
Appendix 3 Questions in Surveys and Interviews 296(2)
Appendix 4 Checklists of Quality Criteria for Nursing Homes for the Elderly 298(4)
Appendix 5 A Comparison of Factors and Attributes That Influence the Total Wear of the Real Estate 302(8)
Appendix 6 AEDET: General Issues 310(6)
Bibliography 316(11)
Index 327
Elzbieta Danuta Niezabitowska is a retired professor associated with the Architectural Faculty at Silesian University of Technology, Poland. She has authored over 170 scientific papers. She supervised multiple research grants, including one international. She specializes in research methodology in architecture, especially inter- and transdisciplinary research.