Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements, Second Edition 2nd New edition [Hardback]

(University of Oregon, Eugene, USA), (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Louisville, Colorado, USA), (US Department of Commerce/NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA)
  • Formāts: Hardback, 494 pages, height x width: 254x178 mm, weight: 1338 g, 29 Tables, black and white; 38 Illustrations, color; 200 Illustrations, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 12-Aug-2019
  • Izdevniecība: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138096296
  • ISBN-13: 9781138096295
  • Hardback
  • Cena: 190,32 €
  • Pievienot vēlmju sarakstam
  • Grāmatu piegādes laiks ir 3-4 nedēļas, ja grāmata ir uz vietas izdevniecības noliktavā. Ja izdevējam nepieciešams publicēt jaunu tirāžu, grāmatas piegāde var aizkavēties.
  • Ielikt grozā
  • Daudzums:
  • Piegādes laiks - 4-6 nedēļas
  • Bibliotēkām
  • Formāts: Hardback, 494 pages, height x width: 254x178 mm, weight: 1338 g, 29 Tables, black and white; 38 Illustrations, color; 200 Illustrations, black and white
  • Izdošanas datums: 12-Aug-2019
  • Izdevniecība: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138096296
  • ISBN-13: 9781138096295

The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurements has become increasingly important due to the increased demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data with higher accuracy and increased temporal and spatial resolutions. Recent advances in radiometry, measurement systems, and information dissemination also have increased the need for refreshing the literature available for this topic.

This book provides the reader with an up-to-date review of the important aspects of solar and infrared radiation measurements: radiometer design; equipment installation, operation, maintenance, and calibration; data quality assessment parameters; and the knowledge necessary to properly interpret and apply the measured data to a variety of topics. Each of the authors has more than 40 years of experience with this subject, primarily as the result of developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with the industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects.

The book’s scope and subject matter have been designed to help a wide audience gain a general understanding of this subject and to serve as a technical reference. A student new to the field will benefit from the review of terminology and the historical perspective for radiometry before addressing more detailed topics in radiometry that we hope will be of interest to the more experienced reader.

? Describes the strengths and weaknesses of irradiance instruments

? Provides detailed information on how to assess uncertainty in measurements

? Offers comprehensive background information needed to understand the use of solar instrumentation

? Discusses design concepts for shadowband radiometers, sky imagers, and satellite-based estimates of solar irradiance at the Earth’s surface

? Includes chapter-end questions, references, and useful links

Preface to the Second Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Authors xxi
Chapter 1 Measuring Solar and Infrared Radiation 1(6)
Questions
5(1)
References
5(2)
Chapter 2 Definitions and Terminology 7(26)
2.1 Introduction
7(1)
2.2 The Sun
7(1)
2.3 Extraterrestrial Radiation
8(1)
2.4 Solar Coordinates
9(5)
2.5 Zenith, Azimuth, and Hour Angles
14(1)
2.6 Solar, Universal, and Local Standard Time
15(1)
2.7 Solar Position Calculation Example
16(4)
2.8 Sunrise and Sunset Times
20(1)
2.9 Global, Direct Normal, and Diffuse Irradiance
20(3)
2.10 Solar Radiation on Tilted Surfaces
23(1)
2.11 The Spectral Nature of Solar Radiation
23(3)
2.12 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
26(2)
2.12.1 Conduction
26(1)
2.12.2 Convection
27(1)
2.12.3 Radiative Heat Transfer
28(1)
2.13 Photodiodes and Solar Cell Characteristics
28(2)
2.14 Models
30(1)
Questions
30(1)
References
30(3)
Chapter 3 Historic Milestones in Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurement 33(36)
3.1 Introduction
33(1)
3.2 Earliest Observations of the Sun and the Nature of Light
33(4)
3.3 Nineteenth-Century Radiometers
37(4)
3.3.1 Pouillet's Pyrheliometer (1837)
37(1)
3.3.2 Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder (1853, 1879)
37(1)
3.3.3 Angstrom Electrical Compensation Pyrheliometer (1893)
38(2)
3.3.4 Callendar Pyranometer (1898)
40(1)
3.3.5 Angstrom and Tulipan Pyrgeometers (1899)
41(1)
3.4 Operational Radiometers of the Twentieth Century
41(20)
3.4.1 Abbot Silver-Disk Pyrheliometer (1906)
41(2)
3.4.2 Smithsonian Water-Flow Pyrheliometer (1910)
43(1)
3.4.3 Marvin Pyrheliometer (1910)
43(1)
3.4.4 Angstrom Pyranometer (1919)
44(1)
3.4.5 Kipp & Zonen Solarimeter (1924)
44(1)
3.4.6 Robitzsch Bimetallic Actinograph (1932)
45(1)
3.4.7 Eppley 180° Pyrheliometer (1930)
46(2)
3.4.8 Eppley Model PSP (1957)
48(1)
3.4.9 Yanishevsky Pyranometer (1957)
49(2)
3.4.10 Eppley Model NIP (1957)
51(2)
3.4.11 Eppley Model Precision Infrared Radiometer (PIR) (1968)
53(1)
3.4.12 Primary Absolute Cavity Radiometer (PACRAD) (1969)
54(1)
3.4.13 Eppley Model 8-48 (1969)
55(1)
3.4.14 LI-COR Model LI-200SA (1971)
56(1)
3.4.15 Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (1975)
57(3)
3.4.16 World Standard Group (1979)
60(1)
3.5 Recent Advances in Solar Measurements
61(4)
3.5.1 Automatic Hickey-Frieden Cavity Radiometer
61(2)
3.5.2 Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)
63(1)
3.5.3 Cryogenic Solar Absolute Radiometer-Measure the Integral Transmittance (CSAR-MITRA)
64(1)
3.6 Summary
65(1)
Questions
65(1)
References
65(4)
Chapter 4 Direct Normal Irradiance 69(22)
4.1 Overview of Direct Normal Irradiance
69(3)
4.2 Pyrheliometer Geometry
72(2)
4.3 Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers
74(3)
4.4 Absolute Cavity Radiometers
77(1)
4.5 Uncertainty Analysis for Pyrheliometer Calibration
78(2)
4.6 Uncertainty Analysis for Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers
80(3)
4.6.1 Window Transmittance, Receiver Absorptivity, and Temperature Sensitivity
81(1)
4.6.2 Solar Zenith Angle Dependence
81(2)
4.7 Uncertainty Analysis for Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Estimates of Direct Normal Irradiance
83(1)
4.8 Direct Normal Irradiance Models
84(2)
4.8.1 Ground-Based Modeling
84(1)
4.8.2 Satellite Model Estimates
84(2)
4.9 Historical and Current Surface-Measured Direct Normal Irradiance Data
86(2)
4.10 Current Issues Regarding Direct Normal Irradiance Measurements
88(1)
Questions
89(1)
References
89(2)
Chapter 5 Broadband Global Irradiance 91(60)
5.1 Introduction to Global Horizontal Irradiance Measurements
91(6)
5.2 Black-Disk Thermopile Pyranometers
97(14)
5.2.1 Thermal Offsets
101(2)
5.2.2 Nonlinearity
103(1)
5.2.3 Spectral Response
103(1)
5.2.4 Angle of Incidence Response
104(3)
5.2.5 Response Degradation
107(1)
5.2.6 Temperature Dependence
108(1)
5.2.7 Ice and Snow on Dome-Ventilators
108(1)
5.2.8 An Optical Anomaly
109(2)
5.3 Black-and-White Pyranometers
111(4)
5.3.1 Characteristics of Black-and-White Pyranometers
111(3)
5.3.2 Lack of Thermal Offset
114(1)
5.4 Photodiode-Based Pyranometers
115(16)
5.4.1 Characterizing a Photodiode Pyranometer
121(3)
5.4.2 Removing Biases in Photodiode Pyranometer Measurements
124(6)
5.4.3 Reference Solar Cells
130(1)
5.5 Calibration of Pyranometers
131(6)
5.5.1 Shade-Unshade Calibration Method
132(3)
5.5.2 Summation Method Calibration
135(2)
5.6 Pyranometer Calibration Uncertainties
137(8)
5.6.1 Uncertainty Analysis Applied to Pyranometer Calibration
139(2)
5.6.2 An Example of the GUM Procedure Applied to the Calibration Uncertainties of a Pyranometer
141(3)
5.6.3 Importance of Understanding Limitations of Percent Uncertainties
144(1)
Questions
145(1)
References
146(3)
Useful Links
149(2)
Chapter 6 Diffuse Irradiance 151(10)
6.1 Introduction
151(1)
6.2 Atmospheric Scattering Concepts
151(2)
6.3 Measuring Diffuse Irradiance
153(4)
6.3.1 Fixed Shadowband Measurements of Diffuse Irradiance
153(2)
6.3.2 Calculated Diffuse Irradiance versus Shading Disk Diffuse
155(1)
6.3.3 Rotating Shadowband Diffuse Measurements
156(1)
6.4 Calibration of Diffuse Pyranometers
157(1)
6.5 Value of Accurate Diffuse Measurements
158(1)
Questions
159(1)
References
160(1)
Chapter 7 Solar Spectral Measurements 161(32)
7.1 Introduction
161(1)
7.2 The Extraterrestrial Solar Spectrum
161(2)
7.3 Atmospheric Interactions
163(7)
7.3.1 Rayleigh Scattering
163(1)
7.3.2 Aerosol Scattering and Absorption
163(2)
7.3.3 Gas Absorption
165(4)
7.3.4 Transmission of the Atmosphere
169(1)
7.4 Broad Filter Radiometry
170(5)
7.4.1 Photometry
170(3)
7.4.2 Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)
173(1)
7.4.3 UVA and UVB
174(1)
7.5 Narrow-Band Filter Radiometry
175(6)
7.5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth
175(2)
7.5.2 Water Vapor
177(2)
7.5.3 Sun Radiometers
179(2)
7.6 Spectrometry
181(7)
7.6.1 Spectrometers
182(4)
7.6.2 Spectral Models
186(2)
7.6.3 Discrete Spectral Measurements and Modeling Combined
188(1)
Questions
188(1)
References
189(4)
Chapter 8 Albedo 193(12)
8.1 Introduction
193(1)
8.2 Broadband Albedo
193(1)
8.3 Spectral Albedo
194(5)
8.4 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
199(1)
8.5 Albedo Measurements
200(2)
8.5.1 Broadband Albedo
200(1)
8.5.2 Spectral Albedo
201(1)
Questions
202(1)
References
202(3)
Chapter 9 Measuring Solar Radiation on a Tilted Surface 205(10)
9.1 Introduction
205(1)
9.2 Effect of Tilt on Single Black Detector Pyranometers
206(2)
9.3 Effect of Tilt on Black-and-White Pyranometers
208(1)
9.4 Effect of Tilt on Photodiode Pyranometers
209(2)
9.5 Recommendations for Tilted Irradiance Measurements
211(1)
9.6 Modeling Photovoltaic System Performance with Data from
Photodiode Pyranometers
212(1)
Questions
213(1)
References
214(1)
Chapter 10 Shadowband Radiometers 215(14)
10.1 Introduction
215(1)
10.2 Introduction to the Rotating Shadowband Radiometer
215(2)
10.3 Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Using Silicon Detector
217(6)
10.4 Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer
223(2)
10.5 SPN1 Sunshine Pyranometer
225(1)
Questions
226(1)
References
227(2)
Chapter 11 Infrared Measurements 229(12)
11.1 Introduction
229(1)
11.2 Pyrgeometers
230(3)
11.3 Calibration
233(2)
11.4 Improved Calibrations
235(1)
11.5 Other Pyrgeometer Manufacturers
236(1)
11.6 Operational Considerations
236(3)
Questions
239(1)
References
239(2)
Chapter 12 Net Radiation Measurements 241(8)
12.1 Introduction
241(1)
12.2 Single-Sensor (All-Wave) Net Radiometers
242(2)
12.3 Two-Sensor Net Radiometers
244(1)
12.4 Four-Sensor Net Radiometers
245(1)
12.5 Accuracy of Net Radiometers
246(1)
12.6 A Better Net Radiation Standard
246(1)
12.7 Net Radiometer Sources
247(1)
Questions
247(1)
References
247(2)
Chapter 13 Radiometer Calibrations 249(22)
13.1 Introduction
249(6)
13.1.1 What Is Calibration?
249(3)
13.1.2 Why Is Calibration Needed?
252(1)
13.1.3 How Frequently Should a Radiometer Be Calibrated?
253(2)
13.2 Broadband Shortwave Radiometer Calibration
255(2)
13.3 Broadband Longwave Radiometer Calibration
257(5)
13.4 Spectral Calibrations
262(5)
13.4.1 The Measurement Equation
262(1)
13.4.2 Standard Lamps
263(1)
13.4.3 Langley Plots
264(3)
Questions
267(1)
References
267(4)
Chapter 14 Ancillary Measurements 271(28)
14.1 Introduction
271(1)
14.2 Ambient Temperature
271(3)
14.2.1 Types of Temperature Sensors
272(1)
14.2.2 Response Times
272(1)
14.2.3 Measuring Temperature
272(2)
14.3 Wind Speed and Wind Direction
274(7)
14.3.1 Sensor Terminology
275(1)
14.3.2 Anemometer
275(1)
14.3.3 Cup Anemometers
275(2)
14.3.4 Propeller Anemometers
277(1)
14.3.5 Sonic Anemometers
278(1)
14.3.6 Installing Anemometers
278(1)
14.3.7 Wind Vanes
278(3)
14.4 Relative Humidity
281(1)
14.5 Atmospheric Water Vapor
282(2)
14.5.1 Using GPS Satellites to Measure Precipitable Water Vapor
283(1)
14.5.2 Installing a Global Positioning System Antenna
283(1)
14.6 Pressure
284(2)
14.6.1 Aneroid Displacement Transducers
284(1)
14.6.2 Piezoresistive Barometers
284(2)
14.6.3 Piezocapacitance Barometers
286(1)
14.7 Sky-Imaging Systems
286(6)
14.7.1 Site Surveys
286(3)
14.7.2 Sky Conditions
289(3)
14.8 Circumsolar Instruments
292(3)
14.8.1 Sun and Aureole Measurement
292(1)
14.8.2 Attempts to Automatically and Continuously Monitor the Circumsolar Irradiance
292(2)
14.8.3 Use of the Sky Imager to Measure Circumsolar Irradiance
294(1)
14.8.4 Use of the Rotating Shadowband Radiometer
294(1)
14.9 Recommended Minimum Accuracies for Operational Instruments
295(1)
Questions
295(1)
References
296(3)
Chapter 15 Solar Monitoring Station Best Practices 299(20)
15.1 Introduction
299(1)
15.2 Choosing a Site
299(2)
15.3 Grounding and Shielding
301(1)
15.4 Data Logger and Communications
302(1)
15.5 Measurement Interval
303(2)
15.6 Cleaning and Maintenance
305(2)
15.7 Record Keeping
307(2)
15.8 Importance of Reviewing Data
309(2)
15.9 Quality Control of Data
311(2)
15.10 Field Calibrations
313(2)
15.11 Physical Layout of a Solar-Monitoring Station
315(2)
Questions
317(1)
References
317(2)
Chapter 16 Solar Radiation Estimates Derived from Satellite Images and Auxiliary Measurements 319(10)
16.1 Introduction
319(1)
16.2 Geostationary Satellites
320(1)
16.3 Deriving Irradiance from Satellites
321(3)
16.3.1 Physical Models
321(1)
16.3.2 Empirical Models
322(1)
16.3.3 Global Irradiance
322(1)
16.3.4 Pixel-to-Cloud Index Conversion
322(1)
16.3.5 Cloud Index to Global Horizontal Irradiance Conversion
323(1)
16.3.6 Direct Irradiance
323(1)
16.3.7 Diffuse Irradiance
324(1)
16.3.8 Tilted Irradiance
324(1)
16.4 Status of Satellite Irradiance Models
324(1)
16.5 Comments on Modeling and Measurement
325(1)
Questions
326(1)
References
326(3)
Appendix A: Measurement Uncertainty Principles 329(14)
Appendix B: Modeling Solar Radiation 343(20)
Appendix C: Sunshine Duration 363(2)
Appendix D: Sun Path Charts 365(20)
Appendix E: Solar Position Algorithms 385(8)
Appendix F: Useful Conversion Factors 393(4)
Appendix G: Sources for Equipment 397(4)
Appendix H: BORCAL Report 401(34)
Appendix I: Failure Modes 435(6)
Appendix J: How to Build a Pyranometer with a Solar Cell or Photodiode 441(4)
Appendix K: Content Required for a Comprehensive Datafile 445(10)
Appendix L: Solar Radiation Databases 455(14)
Answers to
Chapter Questions
469(16)
Index 485
Frank Vignola is the director of the University of Oregon Solar Energy Center and runs the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (SRML). He received his B.A. in physics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1967 and his Ph.D. in physics at the University of Oregon in 1975, with his thesis on elementary particle physics. He decided to apply his skills to more practical applications and started working in solar energy in 1977 at the University of Oregon. Dr. Vignola helped establish and manage the SRML solar radiation monitoring network that has created the longest-running high-quality solar radiation data set in the United States. He has organized and participated in many workshops on solar resource assessment and has written and contributed to approximately 100 papers on solar resource assessment. He was technical chair of the 1994 and 2004 conferences of the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) and for several years chaired the Technical Review Committee for ASES that managed the publication of several white papers on solar energy. He is currently associate editor for solar resource assessment for the Solar Energy Journal. To help facilitate the use of solar energy, he created and maintains a solar resource assessment website that is accessed by over 150,000 users a year. In addition, he has served on the boards of ASES and the Solar Energy Industries Association and is past president of the Oregon Solar Energy Industries Association (OSEIA). Dr. Vignola has helped pass solar tax credit and net metering legislation in Oregon and was author of Oregon's law requiring 1.5% of the capital for solar in new public buildings. Joseph Michalsky received his B.S. in physics at Lamar University and M.S. and Ph.D. in physics at the University of Kentucky. He began his career with Battelle Memorial Institute that operates the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Following that he was with the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center a part of the State University of New York in Albany. He then joined the Global Monitoring Division within the Earth System Research Laboratory in the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). He continued his research part-time for a few years with the University of Colorado's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. Now fully retired he continues to dabble in atmospheric research of his own choosing. His early career focused on astronomical research before taking on problems in solar energy. His focus in the major part of his career has been in the solar energy and atmospheric sciences. Dr. Michalsky has over 100 refereed publications in astronomy, solar energy, and atmospheric science. Thomas Stoffel received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado-Boulder and an M.S. in meteorology from the University of Utah. He began his professional career as an aerospace engineer at the U.S. Air Force Propulsion Laboratory simulating gas turbine engine performance and infrared radiation signatures. He returned to school to pursue his interests in radiative transfer and atmospheric science. Upon graduation, he worked at what is now the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory to analyze urban-rural differences in solar radiation. In 1978, he began his career in renewable energy at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) operated for the U.S. Department of Energy in Golden, Colorado. Progressing from his start as an associate scientist to retiring as a principal group manager, he and his team of scientists and engineers were responsible for the development and dissemination of solar resource information for the advancement of solar technologies and climate change research. This included the development of the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL), which continues to provide research-quality solar resource measurements, radiometer calibrations, and systems for data acquisition and quality assessment (https://www.nrel.gov/grid/solar-resource/renewable-resource-data.html). He has authored or contributed to more than 80 publications addressing various aspects of solar and infrared radiation measurements.