Urban-Rural Synergy Development Through Housing, Landscape, and Tourism [Hardback]

Edited by (University of Belgrade Russia), Edited by (University of Belgrade Russia), Edited by (University of Belgrade Russia), Edited by (University of Belgrade Russia), Edited by (University of Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  • Formāts: Hardback, 365 pages, height x width: 279x216 mm
  • Izdošanas datums: 30-Jun-2020
  • Izdevniecība: IGI Global
  • ISBN-10: 1522599320
  • ISBN-13: 9781522599326
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  • Formāts: Hardback, 365 pages, height x width: 279x216 mm
  • Izdošanas datums: 30-Jun-2020
  • Izdevniecība: IGI Global
  • ISBN-10: 1522599320
  • ISBN-13: 9781522599326
As cities continue to grow with advancing technologies, the spatial and temporal gaps between rural and urban areas are shrinking, thereby requiring the sectors to interact with each other. While the prospect is to develop each area without hampering the newfound synergy between them, there are still many barriers and concerns that hinder this inevitable urban-rural relationship. Urban-Rural Synergy Development Through Housing, Landscape, and Tourism is a pivotal reference source that focuses on the applications and challenges of creating cooperation between urban and rural areas along various fields. While highlighting topics including suburbanization, weekend-residence zones, and homeostasis, this publication is ideally designed for architects, sector managers, region developers, urban planners, urban developers, construction managers, urban studies professionals, academicians, researchers, and students seeking current research on lessening the urban-rural gap in both global and local contexts.
Preface xx
Section 1 Urban-Rural Cooperation in Housing and Landscape
Chapter 1 Decoding (Sub)Urban-Rural Fragmentation Processes: A Morphogenetic Approach in Lisbon Metropolis
Jaoa Rafael Santos
The spatial complexity of metropolitan territories is the result of the accumulation of various forms of urban and infrastructural development, some of which can be characterized as being based on a fragmentary mode of production.
The chapter aims at building an empirical approach to a broader discussion regarding spatial fragmentation as part of metropolitan territorial development using an example on an important suburban territory in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal).
As such, it will provide a conceptual review of contemporary urban and morphological approaches to metropolization and the issue of urban-rural relationships, an overview of Lisbon's metropolitan development and the specific changes identified in the case study, the overview and results of morphological analysis regarding land subdivision processes, and a discussion on a design-oriented description of territorial components with potential to reinforce the spatial synergies of urban fabrics, infrastructures, and open space.
Chapter 2 Trends in New Multi-Family Residential Development in Serbia: Overview by Local Urban Professionals
Aleksandra M. Djukic
Branislav M. Antonic
The field of housing has undergone significant changes during the challenging post-socialist transition.
Serbia has been a somewhat different case in the way that its transition was postponed and more complex.
Conversely, its housing also carries the legacy of the more developed former socialist Yugoslavia.
This dichotomy can easily be observed in the case of the newly-built, "transitional" multi-storey housing.
However, the data relating to its characteristics is rare and insufficiently accurate.
The aim of this chapter is to improve the research of the urban dimension in newly-built multi-family housing in Serbia, regarding housing planning in the new master and detailed urban plans for Serbian cities.
This has been researched by analyzing the professional knowledge and experience of local experts.
Therefore, the method used in the research was survey, in which urban experts had participated.
It had been carried out in May 2015.
Chapter 3 Urban-Rural Synergy Toward Human Well-Being
Nikola Zoran Furundzic
Dijana Petar Furundzic
Aleksandra Krstio-Furundzic
The cities are characterized by the rapid development of technologies and the inevitable expansion, which requires looking at ways to address new challenges and overcome the problems that have arisen.
Living conditions may vary in many ways, depending on where people live, but the advantages and disadvantages in terms of comfort of human life can be recognized in both urban and rural environments, as analysis of case studies shows.
Factors that occur in both areas and affect human life, comfort, and health are presented.
The positive effects of rural areas and the advantages that cities have in terms of preserving human health are discussed in this chapter.
By comparing the good characteristics of the urban and rural environment, the goal is to indicate some postulates that can be applied in preventive medicine.
Chapter 4 Small Urban Centers as Drivers of Daily Migrations and Agents of Transformation of Rural Hinterland: Example of Blace Municipality
Eva Vanista Lazarevic
Milena Ivanovic
Dusan Ristic
Marjan Marjanovic
Mario Milicevic
Decades of regional polarity in Serbia conditioned the adoption of a polycentric territorial development as one of the main strategic goals of the country's spatial development.
Politics of polycentrism specifically highlights the role and importance of small urban centers in generating a more balanced regional development.
In constellation with their rural surroundings, they can serve as strong agents of change towards sustainable spatial development, functional cohesion, and transformation of the rural hinterland, and thus, contribute to the balanced spatial development.
The main aim of the chapter is to examine the potential of small urban centers to generate spatial and functional integration, that is, to explore the possibility for small towns to integrate and transform their rural surroundings.
The chapter analyses the field of functional influence of small towns on their rural surroundings on the example of Blace Municipality through determining the intensity of daily migrations which are a well-known indicator of spatial and functional integration of rural areas and urban centers.
Chapter 5 Changing Territories and the "Edge Effect" of the Re-Habited Industrial Structures
Jasmina Siljanoska
Goran Mickovski
Ivan Angelova
This chapter will examine the transition zones around the borderline of the legal perimeter defined by law and master planning of Skopje that have always played a role of interactive borderland in which the concept of interactivity and urban-rural-exurban synergy is applicable.
Of particular interest is how edge position of certain abandoned structures, industrial areas in particular, in the period of post-socialist transition have affected use and movement patterns changing.
These structures have originally influenced the surrounding area by their users, and now they are largely neglected or underused and need interventions of rehabilitation into beneficial use.
The authors support the view that there is significance in conceiving of a "edge effect" of the re-habilitated social and industrial fringe structures.
They find that they should be given more consideration in the context of new economies and innovative technologies which will enable rehabilitation and adaptive reuse of the existing premises.
Chapter 6 Urban-Rural Synergy Between Housing Spatial Patterns and Landscape: Typological Classification of Belgrade Socialist Settlements From an Environmental Perspective
Ana Nikezic
Jelena Ristic Trajkovic
Aleksandra Milovanovic
The morphogenesis of the urban territory and its contact with the non-urbanized, natural environment of the wider metropolitan area distinguish issues of the synergy between landscape and spatial patterns in order to achieve their balance, optimization, and harmony.
This chapter highlights the conceptual framework of landscape ecology as linking to place-based design approach for studying the synergy of landscape and housing spatial patterns in order to improve their integration in future perspective.
The territory of the city of Belgrade is recognized as a specific spatial-morphological system that is a consequence of the urban-rural synergy between socialist housing settlements and environmental processes.
The chapter points at the environmental and functional values of nature with a particular focus on housing typology in the process of urban planning and architectural design.
Section 2 Urban-Rural Cooperation in Tourism
Chapter 7 Information System Supporting Heterogeneous Sources for Promoting Destination of Rural Areas
Miroslava Raspopovic Milic
Milena Vukmirovic
Svetlana Cvetanovic
Tourism in rural areas is considered small-scale tourism, which represents a strong potential for growth of areas traditionally characterized as agricultural areas.
Rural tourism tends to be heterogeneous with many different and scattered stakeholders, making the efficiency and effectivity hard to achieve.
Many ICT technologies have found their way into smart tourism.
Even though there are plentiful user generated data and smart tourism applications, they represent a very heterogeneous sources that are challenging to integrate in one scalable system.
The aim of this research is to propose a model for information system that will increase efficiency of the rural small-scale tourism by using both internal and external systems, such as social networks, local services, geotagged resources, sentiment analysis, and data- and text-based mining systems.
The goal of this information system is to gather a rich database that will allow users to identify their next destination and to identify most valuable assets for each location in the region.
Chapter 8 Evaluation of Technologies That Help to Identify Hazards for Cyclists in Cities
Christine Chaloupka
Ralf Risser
Elisabeth Fussl
How do people look at sites and places and perceive details?
Studies are referred dealing with the looking behaviour of cyclists, under the assumption that the method used could also be applied for assessing looking behaviour of tourists and to learn more about risks for cyclists.
In the frame of a naturalistic cycling study in Austria, among others, a method should be developed that would help to find out where bicyclists direct their visual attention on their ways.
Use was made of mobile eye tracking glasses.
Results will be shown of the development work that demonstrate that points of interest can be identified via the detection of gaze plots of samples of cyclists.
No technology helps to register what is perceived by peripheral vision which would give a more complete picture of reality.
Any technological method that today registers where cyclists, or customers, or visitors direct their attention to has to be completed with verbal data from interviews, questionnaires, etc. in order to assure themselves of what really has been perceived.
Chapter 9 Rural Tourism Development as a Catalyst of Urban-Rural Synergy in the Region of Southern and Eastern Serbia
Milica Igic
Mihailo Mitkovic
Petar Mitkovic
Milena Dinic-Brankovic
Jelena Dekic
Ivana Bogdanovic Protic
Milica Ljubenovic
Rural areas in Serbia occupy about 3/4 of total country territory and they are home for almost half of total population.
These areas are characterized by very heterogeneous environment with not expressed anthropogenic negative influence.
Because of a few types of the settlements and very rich rural and natural landscapes, there are great opportunities for development of diverse economies, multifunctional use, and a variety of different activities.
This chapter discusses rural tourism development in the Region of the Southern and Eastern Serbia and its impact on the urban-rural synergy.
The main goal is to investigate the impact of the tourism development on the connections on the relation urban to rural on the example of this region, and to point out importance of this synergy for future balanced rural and regional development.
Rural tourism represents drive for urban-rural synergy and it is one of the key factors of rural development.
Chapter 10 Visitor Centres as a Contribution to Improving Urban-Rural Relations: From Primary Needs to Landmarks
Aleksandar Videnovic
Milos Arandjelovic
The architecture of public buildings in rural areas, through the advancement of skills, knowledge, technologies, and materials, has become increasingly representative in recent decades, especially considering tourism as a global theme.
The work is related to the planning of visitor centers in rural areas and the main task is defined by the effort to improve the quality of life in such areas, that is, highlight the major advantages in space, such as the natural environment.
The aim of the research is defined by establishing certain elements in the planning of the visitor centers within the idea of promoting local values and cultural heritage.
The first part of the chapter has been defined as an analysis of the theoretical views.
The second part of the study has been defined as an analysis of the visitor centers.
Through a case study, in the third part of the chapter, the work presents a comparative overview of the process to achieve two individual similar investments in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Section 3 Urban-Rural Cooperation Through Technologies
Chapter 11 Upgrading the Building Facades in Low-Density Residential Areas: Implications on the Overall Building Performance
Katerina Tsikaloudaki
Dimitra Tsirigoti
Stella Tsoka
Theodore Theodosiou
The most common action for the buildings' energy upgrade across Europe is the addition of thermal insulation on the external walls.
Such interventions, although simple on their construction, cause significant changes on the building's behavior, not only on its energy needs, but also on the hygrothermal and visual performance.
The effects are not always positive; for example, thicker insulation may result in lower thermal transmittance and better thermal energy performance, but on the other hand the thermal bridging effect is amplified, and the daylight levels are decreased.
This research intends to quantify these impacts by analyzing the relevant parameters for different regions of Europe.
The analysis aims at explaining the complicated interrelationships on the building physics' aspects encountered through interventions on the building envelope, but also at identifying appropriate measures that could counterbalance the negative impacts and enhance the overall building performance.
Chapter 12 Estimate of Energy Performance Indicator of Existing Single-Family Houses in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Darija Gajic
Erdin Salihovic
Nermina Zagora
Yielding from an overall quantitative study of the residential sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), this chapter concentrates on the ratio between single-family and collective housing, as well as on the urban-rural ratio of the single-family housing.
Based on the data from the existing building stock (buildings built by 2014) and the statistical estimates, 23% of the buildings belong to the urban areas and 77% belong to the rural areas.
The main goal was to study the correlation between the characteristics of the building envelope, the shape factor (A/V ratio) and the energy savings potential for the application of conventional measures of refurbishment of the building envelope of the single-family houses (type of buildings, which dominate in rural and urban areas).
The chapter wraps up with recommendations for the adequate level of the energy performance indicator (energy need for heating) for the approved energy class for single-family houses located in the climate zone of the northern B&H.
Chapter 13 (R)urban Synergy vs. Climate Change: The Impact of ICT Networks on the Process of Adaptation and Mitigation
Aleksandra Stupar
Vladimir Mihajlov
Ivan Simic
The chapter provides an insight into the relationship between synergic (r)urban systems, information networks and climate change, discussing the emerging ideas, and concepts related to the increasing use of information networks in the process of climate adaptation and mitigation.
Emphasizing the strategic role of both digital and material information flows, supported by ICT tools, the chapter focuses on two main domains of data exchange and knowledge transfer: the public communication of climate change and the connectivity and interaction within (r)urban hybrid systems.
Underlining the issues of effectiveness, accessibility, and low-carbon outcomes of synergic (r)urban reactions to climate shift, recent environmental and technological trends are considered in accordance with the preferred spatio-functional flexibility of emerging (r)urban hybrid settlements.
The chapter also identifies and analyses three areas of ICT applicability, targeting the role of information networks in the anticipated climate-friendly development: human behavior, ecological awareness, and general efficiency.
Chapter 14 Research on First Mini Solar Power Plants to Produce Electric Power on the South Serbia
Mihailo Mitkovic
Jelena Dekic
Petar Mitkovic
Milica Igic
The solar radiation and energy potential in Serbia is 30% higher than in Central Europe, and the intensity of solar radiation is among the highest in Europe.
Specifically suitable are the condition for usage of solar energy in southeast Serbia where the annual average of global radiation on a horizontal surface amounts to more than 4.2 kWh/m2 a day.
This chapter discusses four photovoltaic solar power plants, two having been installed in the territory of the city of Leskovac and two in the Bosilegrad territory.
The research is based on geographical location of solar power plants, orientation, and inclination of the panels in respect to the horizontal surface.
All the processed solar power plants have the capacity 30-40 kW.
The chapter is projection of two years of researching and measuring data on the initial investments in order reach profitability and investment return period.
The solar power plants that have fitted angle of 33° (Fortuna) give higher production of electric power than in those panels that have angle inclination of 10° (Domit).
Section 4 Urban-Rural Cooperation in Territorial Development
Chapter 15 New Concepts and Instruments for the Urban-Rural Continuum: Exploring Through Education
Ratka Colic
Danijela Milovanovic Rodic
Marija Maruna
The chapter presents and discusses the process and results of collaboration between an academic institution and local government in students' masters' theses and integrated urban development projects for urban-rural continuum of the territory of the City of Paneevo, Serbia.
The chapter has four main parts: 1) a brief overview of the theoretical framework for multilevel governance; 2) the background, focusing on the national policy; 3) applied educational model; and 4) 11 students' projects dealing with the urban-rural continuum.
Recommendations are made for continuing application of and research into potential teaching methods that promote meaningful interaction and practical and problem-oriented instruction that contribute to an understanding of contemporary problems of balanced urban-rural development.
The conclusion discusses process and product outcomes, differentiating benefits for all those involved, as well as the obstacles and challenges encountered.
Chapter 16 Contemporary Rural Settlements: New Paradigm for Planning and Constructing Rural Settlements Based on Complexity Theory
Dzenana Bijedic
Rada Cahtarevic
Denis Zvizdic
Adna Proho
Throughout history, built environment developed intuitively on empirical experience led by trial and error.
Such approach provided resilience and evolvement of patterns that guided spatial organization.
Newer interventions in the rural environment resulted in disconnected spatial fragments.
By comparing vernacular and contemporary planning and construction practice in the natural park Blidinje, the authors tried to identify the reason for which contemporary interventions resulted in new patterns in spatial planning, ones completely unfamiliar for this geographical area.
They identified the reason in the fact that men started to treat the natural space as a commodity, forcing stakeholders to be led primarily by economic principles.
Such principles are rigid and linear, instead of contextual in this matter.
At the same time, the environmentally sound approach should respect complexity of whole endeavor aiming to achieve diversity and variability.
The models developed based on complexity theory and self-organization should preserve continuity and integrity of the place and man.
Chapter 17 Urban-Rural Synergy in Shrinking Regions Through Application of e-co Model
Tijana M. Vujicic
Dijana Simonovic
Many regions worldwide are faced with the problem of shrinkage, manifested through demographic decline, economic loss, and perforation of the urban tissue.
Starting from the assumption that the shrinking phenomenon is present in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the research deals with the diagnosis of the shrinking condition in urban and rural areas of the northwest region of the country.
In the light of the shrinkage problems, the chapter defines a new alternative model-e-co-which should enable the recovery from the crisis and restore the vitality of the region.
The chance for recovery is recognized in the processes of rural urbanization and urban ruralization, the integration of rural values and urban advantages, the modern globality, and traditional locality.
Chapter 18 Restructuring Centers of Former Rural Settlements and Weekend-Residence Zones: Shaping Post-Socialist Suburbia in Nig, Serbia
Milena Dinic-Brankovic
Jelena Dekic
Petar Mitkovic
Milica Igic
The zone of post-socialist suburbia was predefined even during socialism, when rural settlements surrounding large cities were joined with city territory.
After the fall of socialism, new intensive transformations unfolded in suburban areas.
This chapter analyzes the centers of suburban settlements by using a segment of the administrative area of the City of Nig, Serbia as a case study.
Selected settlements have high values of demographic growth in the post-socialist period: four settlements of rural origin, one sprawling settlement, and one settlement of former weekend-residences.
This chapter is set to investigate current development patterns in suburbia and to formulate guidelines for designing suburban centers.
Urban matrix for mixed-use centers is created, which shapes the center spatially and functionally.
Vital centers of suburban neighborhoods that are integrated into the city network represent the only sustainable form of development of suburban areas and city as a whole.
Compilation of References 380(41)
About the Contributors 421(13)
Index 434
Eva Vanista Lazarevic - PhD in Architecture & Urbanism (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Architecture, Serbia), MSc in Protection of Architectural Heritage (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, Croatia). Eva Vanista Lazarevic is a Full Professor of Urbanism and Urban Planning at Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade and has over 25 years of experience in teaching Urbanism, Urban design & Urban regeneration and planning. She was, between others: Head of Department for Urbanism and Urban planning at Faculty of Architecture, Member of City Council Commission for Urbanism of Belgrade and Councilor for Architecture and Urbanism at Ministry for Urbanism, Planning and Environment of Serbia.